Every Student

R&V3 - Reading - Intentional

Teaching Strategies

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Attribute meaning »
Errorless learning »
Motivators »
Modelling »
Independent practice »
Incidental teaching »
Prompting »
Shaping »
Blocking access »


Teaching Opportunities

Morning circle
Bike riding
Group discussions
KLA sessions
Library sessions
Community access
Literacy sessions
Technology sessions
Leisure time
Sensory play
Group games
Art activities


Teaching Resources

Photo books
Personalised photo book
Student names
Social stories
Cueing songs
Fiddle toys
Favoured songs
Online books
Listening post
Story props
Replica signs
Interactive apps, software and websites
Student photos
Favoured items
Big books
Variety of texts
Reading corner
Interactive touch screen devices


Levels Of Support

Full Physical Assistance (FP) »
Partial Physical Assistance (PP) »
Modelled Response (M) »
Gesture/Sign (G/S) »
Verbal (V) »
Independent (I) »


Programming Proforma

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Assessment Strategies



Assessment Record

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Syllabus Outcomes and Content
Syllabus Outcomes

Early Stage 1 Outcomes (2012)

ENe-4A A student demonstrates developing skills and strategies to read, view and comprehend short, predictable texts on familiar topics in different media and technologies

ENe-8B A student demonstrates emerging skills and knowledge of texts to read and view, and shows developing awareness of purpose, audience and subject matter

ENe-10C A student thinks imaginatively and creatively about familiar topics, simple ideas and the basic features of texts when responding to and composing texts


Life Skills 7-10 Outcomes (2012)

ENLS-4A A student views and responds to a range of visual texts, media and multimedia

ENLS-5A A student recognises and uses visual texts, media and multimedia for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

ENLS-6A A student reads and responds to a range of written texts in familiar contexts

ENLS-7A A student uses strategies to obtain meaning from and interpret a range of texts

ENLS-12C A student responds to texts in ways that are imaginative and interpretive


HSC Life Skills 11-12 Outcomes (2007)

HSC LS4.1 Recognises individual photographs, pictures, symbols or words for personal use

HSC LS4.2 Recognises, interprets and responds to photographs, pictures, symbols and signs in a range of communicative community contexts

HSC LS4.3 Recognises, interprets and responds to written information

HSC LS4.4 Comprehends written instructions in order to undertake activities and ensure personal safety

HSC LS4.5 Comprehends and responds to a variety of texts in a range of formats to obtain information, engage in a range of recreation and leisure activities and to undertake further education, training and employment

HSC LS5.2 Uses symbolic representations of ideas to produce visual messages

HSC LS6.2 Views images and interprets their meaning, information and content

Syllabus Content

Early Stage 1 (ENe) Content Students:

-join in rhymes and chants 4A

-identify some familiar written symbols in context, e.g. logos, computer icons and commands, labels of packages, signs 4A

-read and understand some sight words in simple, predictable texts 4A

-read one or more sentences correctly and for meaning in environmental/print texts 4A

-select simple print, visual and/or digital texts to read independently for enjoyment and pleasure 8B

-recognise that words and pictures have meaning and that words can be read aloud 8B

-distinguish print from drawings 8B

-discuss creative language features in imaginative texts that can enhance enjoyment, e.g. illustrations, repetition 10C



Life Skills (ENLS) Content Students:

-recognise symbols, signs and logos in everyday situations 4A

-view and respond to their preferred visual texts in a range of contexts 4A

-view and respond to graphs, charts and maps in everyday contexts 4A

-respond to a variety of texts 4A

-view and respond to a range of visual texts, media and multimedia for enjoyment 4A

-use photographs, pictures, symbols and visual aids for a variety of purposes 5A

-read a variety of short, written texts for enjoyment or information 6A

-select a range of texts for enjoyment and justify reasons for their choice 6A

-express a point of view/opinion about a text 6A

-identify and use reading behaviours 6A

-recognise and interpret single words or simple instructions in context 6A

-adjust reading strategies according to the type of text and its purpose 7A

-use a variety of strategies 7A

-read and view a variety of texts for pleasure 12C


HSC Life Skills (LS) Content Students:

-select material with photographs or pictures of family members or friends, for personal enjoyment 4.1

-select printed material with photographs or pictures of favourite people, objects or items 4.1

-recognise and follow daily routines, using photographs, pictures and symbols 4.1

-select items and objects by identifying symbols or words 4.1

-recognise and interpret signs, words, symbols and pictures in a community context 4.2

-interpret icons or  pictorial information to enhance community access and increase independence 4.2

-locate goods, services, items and places in the community using signs, pictures, and  symbols 4.2

-interpret and act on written information on signs and notices in a community context 4.3

-interpret written information to enhance community access and increase independence 4.3

-locate goods, services, items and places in the community from written identification 4.3

-read basic information with supervision and are assisted to comprehend the content 4.4

-use public libraries to select a variety of written material 4.5

-select written material to read for recreation and leisure 4.5

-read to gain information for personal purposes 4.5

-interpret text presented in a variety of formats 4.5

-use photographs or line drawings to produce lists or schedules 5.2

-use small photographs or line drawings in a personal collection to convey a message to known and unknown people in different contexts 5.2

-access a computer to produce visual messages 5.2

-respond to a variety of material 6.2

English Learning Continuum Content


Positions body to attend Sits with the group
Looks at illustrations and texts

Recognises self in mirror or photo

Interacts with a variety of texts
Looks at and interacts with real community signs/objects    


Reflex vocalisations made by students are opportunities to shape them into intentional responses to a text. Incidental opportunities to do this could occur at anytime throughout the school day and are particularly important during morning circle, shared reading and leisure time. It is important to interpret the vocalisation in context. For example, when a student makes a reflex vocalisation during a shared reading of ‘The Very Hungry Caterpillar’ By Eric Carle published by Penguin Books Australia, immediately interpret the student’s meaning by saying “SN can see the hungry caterpillar! He is eating all the food – chomp, chomp, chomp!”


Positions body to attend

Body movements made by a student are opportunities to shape them into intentional attempts to attend to a text. It is important to interpret the student’s attempt to position their body in context. For instance, when a student makes a reflex movement during a shared reading of ‘Where the Wild Things Are’ by Maurice Sendak published by Random House Books Australia, immediately interpret the student’s body movement by saying, “SN is looking at the Wild Things!” Always interpret, acknowledge and praise any attempt by students to position their body.


Incidental opportunities to attribute meaning occur throughout the school day and will be dependent on the individual student. Attribute meaning to any student behaviour that suggests they wish to attend to a text so it can be shaped into an intentional action. For example, if a student brings a chair to the story corner say “SN wants to listen to a story. Let’s read ‘Alexander’s Outing’ by Pamela Allen.” Other behaviour which may suggest a student’s wish to attend to a text include selecting a book or interactive story, bringing a book to you, sitting in the reading corner or in front of an interactive device and putting headphones on at the listening post.


Sits with the group

Create and read a social story about sitting with the group featuring a particular student and their classmates to encourage sitting behaviour.

Attribute meaning to any student behaviour that suggests they wish to sit with the group or are remaining with the group by saying, “SN is sitting with the group! Well done!”


Play a song to cue when it is time for students to come and sit with the group. Explicitly teach the meaning of the song, use appropriate visuals and encourage students with a favoured item to motivate them to respond to the cue.

Provide support to encourage a student to sit with a group for gradually increasing lengths of time. Motivating items and activities may engage the student whilst sitting with the group or entice a student to come and sit with the group. Examples of motivating items include fiddle toys, cushions, songs and mats.


Looks at illustrations and texts

Use an appropriate level of support to encourage students to look at a text or illustration throughout each day’s activities. Reward this ‘looking’ behaviour with praise and/or student specific motivators. Texts and illustrations may be linked to lessons across all Key Learning Areas or be related directly to student motivators. Examples of illustrations and texts include online books, interactive touch screen flashcards, picture books, posters, magazines, newspapers, photographs, home school diaries, visual texts using PCS and timetables. Ensure that the illustrations and texts used are always age appropriate. Focus the student’s ‘looking’ behaviour by pointing out features of the text/illustration with voice and gesture.

Some websites with online books include:



Recognises self in mirror or photo

Use a mirror to draw a student’s attention to the ‘sameness’ of their action/appearance in the reflection. Support the student to touch different parts of their face, put on a prop and/or make facial expressions. Reinforce the link between the student and their reflection in the mirror by saying, “SN is touching their nose” or “Who can we see? It is SN!”. This could also be done using the camera function on an iPad or tablet. Reinforce this concept by using a large mirror or camera attached to an interactive whiteboard to reflect the student’s full body. This could be extended to include an image of the whole class group.


Make a student book with photos of the student engaged in a variety of activities. When choosing the photos ensure the student’s image is clearly identifiable. Initially ensure that the student’s whole face is in the photo. On a daily basis, look through the photo book emphasising the fact that the photos are of the student you are working with. Support this by touch or gesture whilst vocalising the student’s name. When the student is familiar with the photos in their book, introduce a single student photo card with their name on it. This card can be placed onto each page as the student reads the book. Use errorless learning strategies to support the student to place their photo onto the page and ask, “Where is SN?” Blocking can be used to ensure the student places the photo correctly. Say, “It is SN” and reinforce this by touching the student, the photo on the page and the single photo card.


Interacts with a variety of texts

Develop a range of learning experiences to encourage students to look at and interact with a variety of motivating texts related to all Key Learning Areas. Provide the least amount of support required for the student to do this successfully and say, “SN is looking at ….”, “SN, look it is a …”or “SN is reading the book.”  Types of texts include:


Big Books Listening Post Books
  Tactile Books Laminated Magazine
Sound Button Books Personalised books
Interactive Books   Home/School Diaries
Sensory Books Board Books

Laminated Newspapers    Comics


Looks at and interacts with real community signs/objects

Whilst on community access outings look at some basic community signs and objects. Provide students with the opportunity to look at an individual sign and take a photo of it. Create a community sign/object photo book using student photos.


Encourage students to regularly look through a variety of magazines, maps and newspapers and point out real community signs/objects. These images could be used to make a scrapbook or collage to reinforce understanding.


When moving around the school, take the opportunity to look at school and common community signs/objects such as ‘EXIT’, ‘Ladies’, ‘Gents’, ‘Stop’, ‘First Aid’, crossings and flags.


Encourage students to look at common road signs when riding bikes. These could be replicas of real community road signs. This activity could occur at a community bike track or within the school where possible.



Key Assessment Points



  • The level of prompting required for the student to complete a task should always be recorded.
  • Observation could occur throughout the school day in a variety of activities or during a structured assessment task. This could be captured on video or in photos and recorded in skill checklists/rubrics for analysis.
  • Consultation with outside agencies and therapists such as speech therapists may be able to provide additional assessment information. 



Suggested Apps


First Then Visual Schedule
Little Story Maker
Liquid Mirror