Every Student

R&V3 - Reading - Abstract and Verbal Symbolic

Teaching Strategies

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Errorless learning »
Questioning »
Motivators »
Modelling »
Independent practice »
Incidental teaching »
Strategic pausing »
Prompting »
Blocking access »
Match to sample»
Explicit teaching »

 

Teaching Opportunities

Morning circle
Work schedules
Library sessions
Community access
Community access
Literacy sessions
Gardening
KLA sessions
Technology sessions
Leisure time
Work tasks
Art activities
Cooking sessions

 

Teaching Resources

Community symbol checklist
Picture talk posters
Flipbooks
Switches
Memory games
BINGO games
SNAP games
Baseboards
Daily diary
Word walls
Object cards
Chapter books
Digital story
AAC recipes
Choice board
Play dough
Interactive apps, software and websites
Words
PCS
Photos
Favoured items
Interactive whiteboard files
Variety of texts
Books with auditory/visual patterns
Visual timetable
Community signs
Interactive touch screen devices
Interactive whiteboard
Paddle pop sticks
Colour symbol/sign printouts
Community symbols

 

Levels Of Support

Full Physical Assistance (FP) »
Partial Physical Assistance (PP) »
Modelled Response (M) »
Gesture/Sign (G/S) »
Verbal (V) »
Independent (I) »

 

Programming Proforma

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Assessment Strategies

Observation»
Questioning»
Analysis»
Discussion»
Testing»
Peer and self assessment»
Consultation»

 

Assessment Record

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Syllabus Outcomes and Content
Syllabus Outcomes

Early Stage 1 Outcomes (2012)

ENe-4A A student demonstrates developing skills and strategies to read, view and comprehend short, predictable texts on familiar topics in different media and technologies

ENe-8B A student demonstrates emerging skills and knowledge of texts to read and view, and shows developing awareness of purpose, audience and subject matter

ENe-10C A student thinks imaginatively and creatively about familiar topics, simple ideas and the basic features of texts when responding to and composing texts

 

Life Skills 7-10 Outcomes (2012)

ENLS-4A A student views and responds to a range of visual texts, media and multimedia

ENLS-5A A student recognises and uses visual texts, media and multimedia for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

ENLS-6A A student reads and responds to a range of written texts in familiar contexts

ENLS-7A A student uses strategies to obtain meaning from and interpret a range of texts

ENLS-12C A student responds to texts in ways that are imaginative and interpretive

 

HSC Life Skills 11-12 Outcomes (2007)

HSC LS4.1 Recognises individual photographs, pictures, symbols or words for personal use

HSC LS4.2 Recognises, interprets and responds to photographs, pictures, symbols and signs in a range of communicative community contexts

HSC LS4.3 Recognises, interprets and responds to written information

HSC LS4.4 Comprehends written instructions in order to undertake activities and ensure personal safety

HSC LS4.5 Comprehends and responds to a variety of texts in a range of formats to obtain information, engage in a range of recreation and leisure activities and to undertake further education, training and employment

HSC LS5.2 Uses symbolic representations of ideas to produce visual messages

HSC LS6.2 Views images and interprets their meaning, information and content

Syllabus Content

Early Stage 1 (ENe) Content Students:

-join in rhymes and chants 4A

-identify some familiar written symbols in context, e.g. logos, computer icons and commands, labels of packages, signs 4A

-read and understand some sight words in simple, predictable texts 4A

-read one or more sentences correctly and for meaning in environmental/print texts 4A

-select simple print, visual and/or digital texts to read independently for enjoyment and pleasure 8B

-recognise that words and pictures have meaning and that words can be read aloud 8B

-distinguish print from drawings 8B

-discuss creative language features in imaginative texts that can enhance enjoyment, e.g. illustrations, repetition 10C

 

 


Life Skills (ENLS) Content Students:

-recognise symbols, signs and logos in everyday situations 4A

-view and respond to their preferred visual texts in a range of contexts 4A

-view and respond to graphs, charts and maps in everyday contexts 4A

-respond to a variety of texts 4A

-view and respond to a range of visual texts, media and multimedia for enjoyment 4A

-use photographs, pictures, symbols and visual aids for a variety of purposes 5A

-read a variety of short, written texts for enjoyment or information 6A

-select a range of texts for enjoyment and justify reasons for their choice 6A

-express a point of view/opinion about a text 6A

-identify and use reading behaviours 6A

-recognise and interpret single words or simple instructions in context 6A

-adjust reading strategies according to the type of text and its purpose 7A

-use a variety of strategies 7A

-read and view a variety of texts for pleasure 12C

 

HSC Life Skills (LS) Content Students:

-select material with photographs or pictures of family members or friends, for personal enjoyment 4.1

-select printed material with photographs or pictures of favourite people, objects or items 4.1

-recognise and follow daily routines, using photographs, pictures and symbols 4.1

-select items and objects by identifying symbols or words 4.1

-recognise and interpret signs, words, symbols and pictures in a community context 4.2

-interpret icons or  pictorial information to enhance community access and increase independence 4.2

-locate goods, services, items and places in the community using signs, pictures, and  symbols 4.2

-interpret and act on written information on signs and notices in a community context 4.3

-interpret written information to enhance community access and increase independence 4.3

-locate goods, services, items and places in the community from written identification 4.3

-read basic information with supervision and are assisted to comprehend the content 4.4

-use public libraries to select a variety of written material 4.5

-select written material to read for recreation and leisure 4.5

-read to gain information for personal purposes 4.5

-interpret text presented in a variety of formats 4.5

-use photographs or line drawings to produce lists or schedules 5.2

-use small photographs or line drawings in a personal collection to convey a message to known and unknown people in different contexts 5.2

-access a computer to produce visual messages 5.2

-respond to a variety of material 6.2

English Learning Continuum Content

Copies auditory & visual patterns

Imitates sounds & words

Engages in reading experiences
Engages with illustrations and interactive texts Matches and selects photos, symbols and words Builds word banks with no context
Uses photo/ symbol in a familiar story or sequence Engages with a variety of texts Identifies some basic community signs and words
Follows some basic community signs and words    

Copies auditory & visual patterns

Model visual and auditory repetitions by reading rhymes and books. Identify these patterns by pointing them out and exaggerating them as they are read aloud. Books which would be suitable to teach auditory and visual patterns include:

 

  • Chikka Chikka Boom Boom – By Bill Martin Jr., John Archambault and illustrated by Lois Ehlert
  • Boom, Brown Bear, Brown Bear What do you See? – By Bill Martin Jr. & Eric Carle
  • Itchy, Itchy Chicken Pox - By Grace Maccarone & Betsy Lewin
  • We’re Going On A Bear Hunt- By Michael Rosen & Helen Oxenbury

 

        

 

Play copying games with students using picture cards to represent body percussion sequences such as clap, clap, and tap knees. Provide the least amount of support required for the student to read the body percussion sequence and make the corresponding actions with their body. Point to the words to highlight the importance of reading the sequence from left to right.

 

Imitates sounds & words

Demonstrate repetitious auditory patterns from texts or rhymes and encourage students to imitate the sounds and words. For example, when reading ‘Alexander’s Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day’ By Judith Viorst, exaggerate the repeating sentences and encourage students to join in.

 

Learn simple rhymes or poems as a class. Write the rhymes or poems onto a piece of cardboard with symbols and illustrations if needed. Read these with students on a daily basis and always encourage them to imitate the sounds and words.

 

Play copying games with students using word, picture or letter cards in a sequence such as ‘woof, woof’, ‘moo, moo’, ‘quack, quack’. Read the sequence with students and point to each word, picture or letter cards to highlight left to right directionality.

 

Provide students with the opportunity to play interactive touch screen apps which encourage students to imitate sounds and words. 

 

Engages in reading experiences   

Incidental opportunities arise throughout the school day to engage students in different types of reading experiences. These include:

 

  • Reading a visual timetable for the day in morning circle
  • Reading signs when moving around the school throughout the day
  • Reading interactive texts on a touch screen device
  • Matching, selecting and naming a variety of PCS
  • Using a choice board in leisure time
  • Reading different types of books in the classroom or library
  • Reading recipes during cooking sessions
  • Reading labels of familiar/favoured food items
  • Reading shopping lists for use in the community
  • Reading information boards, logos and signs in the community
  • Reading transport timetables and routes
  • Reading task and activity sequences 
  • Any activity that requires deciphering information 

 

Engages with illustrations and interactive texts

Present an interactive book to students and provide them with a flipbook containing illustrations from each page in the text. Read one page, pausing to point out and name features of the illustration. Direct students to find the corresponding illustration in their flip book and praise them by saying, “SN, well done, it is the same.” The flipbook in this activity could be replaced by an interactive touch screen device for each student.

 

Provide opportunities for students to engage with illustrations and interactive texts on a regular basis. Some examples of interactive texts include:

 

  • Interactive touch screen books
  • Sound books
  • Velcro ™ books
  • Pop up and flap books
  • Interactive whiteboard texts
  • Software based texts such as PM readers
  • Web based interactive texts

 

Read books that require students to find an item(s) within the illustration on each page such as ‘Where’s Wally?’, illustrated by Martin Handford or the ‘Eye Spy’ series by Jean Marzollo and Walter Wick.

 

Use poster illustrations to engage students in picture talk. Encourage interaction with the illustration by asking students to point to and name objects/items. Ask open-ended questions about the scene.

 

Matches and selects photos, symbols and words

Present students with one familiar photo, symbol and/or word and give them a corresponding card to match to it. Use errorless learning to ensure the student correctly matches their card. This can be made more complex by introducing a blank distractor(s) and increasing the number of photos, symbols and/or words presented to the student each time.

 

 

Use a variety of photos, symbols and/or words to develop this skill by playing an adapted version of BINGO.

 

Present the student with familiar photos, symbols and/or words and explicitly teach them how to select using the following steps:

 

1. Together with the student, point to a familiar photo, symbol and/or word and name it.

 

2. Hold up the familiar photo, symbol and/or word card and say, “Give me the ………”. Initially use blocking to ensure student success. As the student becomes more proficient decrease the level of support. Praise the student by saying, “Well done SN! You found the …..!”

 

The complexity of this task can be increased by introducing a blank distractor(s) and increasing the number of photos, symbols and/or words presented to the student.

 

Use a variety of photos, symbols and/or words to develop this skill by playing an adapted version of BINGO.

 

Builds word banks with no context

Select a variety of the student’s favoured objects. Create a set of cards depicting the objects with their word labels. Present the student with the objects and cards and provide the least amount of support required for the student to successfully match the card to the real object. Highlight the link between the word label and the object by pointing to and reading the word with the student. Allow the student to interact with the object for a set period

 

Create ‘Word Walls’ based on class themes or units of work. The words should be nouns which are a person, place or thing to ensure that the student can relate the word to some sort of visual object or representation. Depending on the student’s ability, word walls may be made up of pictures with word labels or the word alone.

 

Uses photo/symbol in a familiar story or sequence

Create a laminated ‘Daily Diary’ to tell the story of the activities for that day. Present the student with a single board of cards representing the activities for that day. Use the least amount of support necessary to assist the student to read through the whole class visual timetable and complete their personal ‘Daily Diary’.

 

Engages with a variety of texts

Provide students with regular opportunities to engage in independent and guided reading activities with a variety of age appropriate texts that relate to students’ interests.

 

Identifies some basic community symbols and words

Explicitly teach some basic community symbols and words by showing, naming and explaining the meaning of each of them. Identify the symbols and words when in the community and take photos of them. Assist students to create a digital story using the basic community symbols and words in the photos. View the digital story on a regular basis, particularly prior to community outings.

 

Make mini replicas of community symbols with paddle pop sticks and coloured printouts. Place the symbols into a length of play dough on the students’ desks. As they read a previously created digital story, use the least amount of support required to assist students to select and hold up the corresponding symbol.

 

Play BINGO games using community symbols and words.

 

Apps such as Functional Living Skills Series Community HD to support students learning a variety of community symbols and/or words. Watch the social story as a whole class group or work one on one with a student. Prompt them to identify each community symbol or word as it is shown. Praise the student for correct responses and where possible refer to any symbols or words that the student has seen in their own community. 

 

Community outings provide opportunities to identify some basic community symbols and words.  Engage students in a community symbol/word hunt. Explicitly teach students the meaning of the symbols/words they will see prior to the outing. Provide each student with a laminated card that has the symbol/s or word/s on it and attach the card to a clipboard with a whiteboard marker. Assist students to find and mark off the symbols or words as they come across them. Discuss the meaning and appearance of each symbol as it is found.  

 

During community outings engage students in a photo chase. Provide students with a camera device and a symbol or word depicting the photo that needs to be taken. Use the photos to create a digital story about community symbols and words. 

 

         

 

Follows some basic community symbols and words

Play games such as ‘Simon Says’ and Follow the Leader’. Use replicas or laminated cards depicting community symbols such as ‘stop’, ‘walk’ or ‘caution’ as the directions in the game. Explicitly teach students the meaning of the cards and their accompanying action. Hold up a card and say, “Simon says …”. Use the least amount of support required to assist students to follow the direction.

 

Display replicas or laminated cards of common community symbols around the school. Symbols could include ‘danger’, ‘exit’, ‘stop’ or ‘pedestrian crossing’. Provide students with a visual checklist of the symbols they need to locate. When a symbol has been located, give students a small laminated version of the symbol to place on their checklist. Once students have located all the symbols and completed their checklist, they win a reward.  This can be a whole class or individual student based game.

 

Take a walk around the local community or school with the intention of finding and following a specific community symbol. When a symbol is encountered, explicitly point it out. Use the least amount of support required to assist students to follow the meaning of the sign appropriately. Explicitly teach the meaning of community symbols prior to the walk.

 

 

 

Key Assessment Points


 


  • The level of prompting required for the student to complete a task should always be recorded.
  • Observation could occur throughout the school day in a variety of activities or during a structured assessment task. This could be captured on video or in photos and recorded in skill checklists/rubrics for analysis.
  • Consultation with outside agencies and therapists such as speech therapists may be able to provide additional assessment information.
  • Work samples could be collected and analysed, for example cut/paste matching tasks.
  • Informal testing could be used to assess some skills.

 


Suggested Apps

 

Toy Story Read-Along
Ladybird Classic Me Books
Peekaboo Pets