Every Student

R&V2 - Comprehension - Concrete Symbolic

Teaching Strategies

Distractors »
Errorless learning »
Motivators »
Modelling »
Prompting »
Blocking access »
Match to sample»
Explicit teaching »

 

Teaching Opportunities

Literacy sessions
Structured games
Technology sessions
Leisure time
Work tasks

 

Teaching Resources

Remnants
Choose-it! software
Playing cards
Dominoes
BINGO games
Memory games
Symbols
Motivators
Photos
Interactive apps, software and websites
Interactive touch screen devices

 

Levels Of Support

Full Physical Assistance (FP) »
Partial Physical Assistance (PP) »
Modelled Response (M) »
Gesture/Sign (G/S) »
Verbal (V) »
Independent (I) »

 

Programming Proforma

Download Program Proforma »

 

Assessment Strategies

Observation»
Questioning»
Analysis»
Testing»
Peer and self assessment»

 

Assessment Record

Download Assessment Record »
Syllabus Outcomes and Content
Syllabus Outcomes

Early Stage 1 Outcomes (2012)

ENe-4A A student demonstrates developing skills and strategies to read, view and comprehend short, predictable texts on familiar topics in different media and technologies

ENe-7B A student recognises some different purposes for writing and that own texts differ in various ways

ENe-8B A student demonstrates emerging skills and knowledge of texts to read and view, and shows developing awareness of purpose, audience and subject matter

 

Life Skills 7-10 Outcomes (2012)

ENLS-4A A student views and responds to a range of visual texts, media and multimedia

ENLS-5A A student recognises and uses visual texts, media and multimedia for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

ENLS-6A A student reads and responds to a range of written texts in familiar contexts

 

HSC Life Skills 11-12 Outcomes (2007)

HSC LS4.1 Recognises individual photographs, pictures, symbols or words for personal use

HSC LS4.2 Recognises, interprets and responds to photographs, pictures, symbols and signs in a range of communicative community contexts

HSC LS4.3 Recognises, interprets and responds to written information

HSC LS4.4 Comprehends written instructions in order to undertake activities and ensure personal safety

HSC LS4.5 Comprehend and responds to a variety of texts in a range of formats to obtain information, engage in a range of recreation and leisure activities and to undertake further education, training and employment

HSC LS5.2 Uses symbolic representations of ideas to produce visual messages

Syllabus Content

Early Stage 1 (ENe) Content 

Students:

-read one or more sentences correctly and for meaning in environmental/print texts 4A

-predict meaning using elements of texts prior to reading 4A

-use comprehension strategies to understand and discuss texts listened to, viewed or read independently 4A

-compose texts using drawings and other visual media to create meaning 7B

-interpret pictures with labels, environmental print logos and other visual images 8B

-recognise that words and pictures have meaning and that words can be read aloud 8B

-explore the different contribution of words and images to meaning in stories and informative texts 8B

Life Skills (ENLS) Content 

Students:

- predict meaning from visual texts, media and multimedia, e.g. cover of a novel, video, DVD, poster, advertisement 4A

- use photographs, pictures, symbols and visual aids for a variety of purposes 5A

- interpret different forms of visual information  5A

- read and respond to questions about texts to demonstrate comprehension 6A

- identify and use reading behaviours 6A

- predict meaning in written texts, e.g predict the storyline of a novel from reading the back cover, predict the ending of a story 6A

- use semantic and grammatical cues to gain meaning from written texts, e.g. use context clues to comprehend an unfamiliar word in a text 6A

- communicate an understanding of literal and inferential questions about character motives, actions, qualities and characteristics in a range of narrative texts  7A

HSC Life Skills (LS) Content 

Students:

- select material with photographs or pictures of family members or friends, for personal enjoyment 4.1

- recognise and follow daily routines, using photographs, pictures and symbols 4.1

- locate goods, services, items and places in the community using signs, pictures, and  symbols 4.2

- interpret icons or  pictorial information to enhance community access and increase independence 4.2

- recognise and interpret signs, words, symbols and pictures in a community context 4.2

- locate goods, services, items and places in the community from written identification 4.3

- interpret written information to enhance community access and increase independence 4.3

- interpret and act on written information on signs and notices in a community context 4.3

- read basic information with supervision and are assisted to comprehend the content 4.4

- interpret text presented in a variety of formats 4.5

- use photographs or line drawings to produce lists or schedules 5.2

- use small photographs or line drawings in a personal collection to convey a message to known and unknown people in different contexts 5.2

- access a computer to produce visual messages 5.2

English Learning Continuum Content

Matches and selects objects, photos and symbols
Begins to exchange remnants, photos and symbols

Matches and selects objects, photos and symbols

Model how to match two identical objects, photos or symbols. Provide students with opportunities to do the same using the least amount of support required. Initially only one pair of identical objects, photos or symbols should be used. When the student is able to do this independently, introduce distractors to increase the complexity of the task. Use blocking strategies to ensure that the student matches the objects, photos or symbols correctly and then fade this support to develop student independence. Say and sign ‘same’ when matching objects, photos or symbols. Use motivating objects, photos or symbols to increase student engagement with this task. Variations of this include:

 

  • matching objects to photos
  • matching photos to symbols
  • matching symbols to objects

 

Play SNAP card games and/or variations of this game using playing cards or cards with familiar photos, favoured characters or symbols on them. Versions of this game are also available on interactive touch screen devices as apps and on websites such as SNAP Dragon.

 

Use age appropriate memory games to practise the skill of recognising that two objects, symbols or photos are the same. Many of these games are available on interactive touch screen devices and can easily incorporate familiar photos or motivating symbols. Use only two pairs of objects, symbols or photos in the initial stages of this game. As students’ abilities develop, increase the difficulty by adding one more pair each time. Always say, sign and gesture ‘same’ when two objects, photos or symbols are a match to reinforce the concept. For students working at the level of object matching, objects could be covered by a sporting dome or witches hat that is lifted to reveal them in the memory game.

 

Use age appropriate domino games to encourage and further develop the skill of matching symbols. There are a range of games available for students of all ages using colours, patterns, characters, dots and images. Domino games can also be played on interactive touch screen devices where photos can be incorporated onto the domino surface. Always provide the least amount of support required and use errorless learning techniques in the initial stages of the game. Say, sign and use gesture to indicate that two domino symbols are the ‘same’. Domino games can be modified to teach the skill of matching by presenting the student with only one domino at a time. 

 

Play selecting games with students where they are required to find a particular photo or symbol. Initially use familiar photos or symbols and ask students to ‘give’ or ‘find’ a particular photo or symbol. This could be a verbal request saying, ”Give me the horse”, or supported visually by holding up an identical photo or symbol card and saying, “Give me the horse” or “Find the same”. Use the least amount of support required for students to select the matching symbol or photo. Praise the student by saying, “Well done SN! They are the same!” Over time a blank distractor could be introduced followed by increasingly complex distractors as the student’s ability to select develops. 

 

Variations of this task include the use of:

 

  • a BINGO base card with matching symbols/photos for the student to place over the corresponding symbol/photo on the base card
  • PCS Bingo App by Mayer Johnson
  • ChooseIt! Maker 2 software to create tasks for students that require them to select/identify a photo or symbol.
  • ChooseIt! Readymades available for purchase.

 

Once students are independent at matching tasks, they should be introduced to tasks that require objects, photos and/or symbols to be selected.

 

Begins to exchange remnants, photos and symbols

Explicitly teach students to exchange remnants, photos and symbols for a favoured item using errorless learning. Place a remnant, photo or symbol of a favoured object within reach of the student while a communication partner holds the favoured object just out of reach. As soon as the student initiates a movement, prompt them to pick up the remnant, photo or symbol of the favoured item in order to exchange it for the object. This could include providing the student with hand over hand support to pick up the remnant, photo or symbol and give it to the communication partner. As soon as the exchange has taken place, praise the student and reward them by immediately giving them the item for a specified amount of time. The level of complexity can gradually be increased by:

 

 

  • providing less support to pick up and exchange the remnant, photo or symbol
  • placing the remnant, photo or symbol further away from the student
  • providing more remnants, photos or symbols to choose from
  • not having the actual object in view
  • having the communication partner stand further away or out of sight

 

 

 

 

 

 

Key Assessment Points:

 

 

  • The level of prompting required for the student to complete a task should always be recorded.
  • Observation could occur throughout the school day in a variety of activities or during a structured assessment task. This could be captured on video or in photos and recorded in skill checklists/rubrics for analysis.
  • Informal testing could be used to assess matching skills.

 

 

Suggested Apps

 

PCS Memory
Mahjong Animals
PCS Bingo
SNAP! Junior
Photo Memory Game