Every Student

R&V1 - Concepts about Print - Concrete Symbolic

Teaching Strategies

Attribute meaning »
Errorless learning »
Motivators »
Strategic pausing »
Shaping »


Teaching Opportunities

Morning circle
Literacy sessions
Community access
Structured games
Work schedules
Leisure time


Teaching Resources

Interactive apps, software and websites
Interactive books
Sensory items
Interactive touch screen devices
Interactive whiteboard


Levels Of Support

Full Physical Assistance (FP) »
Partial Physical Assistance (PP) »
Modelled Response (M) »
Gesture/Sign (G/S) »
Verbal (V) »
Independent (I) »


Programming Proforma

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Assessment Strategies

Peer and self assessment»


Assessment Record

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Syllabus Outcomes and Content
Syllabus Outcomes

Early Stage 1 Outcomes (2012)

ENe-4A A student demonstrates developing skills and strategies to read, view and comprehend short, predictable texts on familiar topics in different media and technologies

ENe-8B A student demonstrates emerging skills and knowledge of texts to read and view, and shows developing awareness of purpose, audience and subject matter

ENe-10C A student thinks imaginatively and creatively about familiar topics, simple ideas and the basic features of texts when responding to and composing texts

ENe-12E A student demonstrates awareness of how to reflect on aspects of their own and others’ learning

Life Skills 7-10 Outcomes (2012)

ENLS-4A A student views and responds to a range of visual texts, media and multimedia

ENLS-5A A student recognises and uses visual texts, media and multimedia for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

ENLS-6A A student reads and responds to a range of written texts in familiar contexts

ENLS-7A A student uses strategies to obtain meaning from and interpret a range of texts


HSC Life Skills 11-12 Outcomes (2007)

HSC LS4.1 Recognises individual photographs, pictures, symbols or words for personal use

HSC LS4.5 Comprehend and responds to a variety of texts in a range of formats to obtain information, engage in a range of recreation and leisure activities and to undertake further education, training and employment

HSC LS6.1 Recognises familiar objects and images when presented in a range of formats so as to make choices and communicate needs

HSC LS6.2 Views images and interprets their meaning, information and content

Syllabus Content

Early Stage 1 (ENe) Content 


-understand direction of print, return sweeps and spaces between words 4A

-understand concepts about print and screen, including how books, film and simple digital 
texts work, and know some features of print, for example directionality  4A

-distinguish print from drawings 8B

-recognise parts of print and digital texts, e.g. front and back covers, title and author, layout and navigation 8B

-recognise some different types of literary texts and identify some characteristic features of literary texts, for example beginnings and endings of traditional texts and rhyme in poetry 10C

Life Skills (ENLS) Content 


-recognise photographs, pictures or symbols as representations of familiar people, objects, venues 4A

-recognise symbols, signs and logos in everyday situations 4A

-read a variety of short, written texts for enjoyment or information  6A

-explore the ways features of visual texts, media and multimedia are used to create meaning for a range of purposes and audiences 5A


HSC Life Skills (LS) Content 


-select items and objects by identifying symbols or words 4.1

-scan visual material to select chosen content 6.2


English Learning Continuum Content

Responds to symbols

Uses some left to right directionality

Responds to symbols

Use the same symbol to consistently communicate a particular instruction to students such as ‘wait’ or ‘sit’. Hold the symbol in the student’s line of vision and clearly state the meaning of the symbol by saying and signing the word. Repeat the instruction incorporating the student’s name by saying and signing,  “SN, wait” whilst holding the visual in their line of sight. Praise the student for responding appropriately to the symbol and instruction. Reinforce it by pointing to the symbol or giving the symbol to the student as you say, “Good waiting SN!” Ensure all staff working with the student use this symbol.


Play an adapted version of games such as ‘Simon Says’ or ‘Pirate Ship’ using symbols to support the instructions given to students. Websites such as Family Education and Teaching Ideas describe how to play these games and many others that could be adapted for use with symbols.


Use symbols to teach students age appropriate dances. YouTube videos for the following dances Hokey Pokey, Chicken Dance and Time Warp could be used to support this activity.



Uses some left to right directionality

Hold a motivating item in the student’s view and wait for them to locate the item by making eye contact and focusing on it. Say, “Good looking SN, you found the….”. Move the item to the right, but still in the student’s line of sight. Strategically pause to give the student time to locate the item. Repeat this activity and gradually increase the tracking distance whilst decreasing the number of pauses.


Motivating interactive whiteboard activities that require students to move an animated character or object from the left side of the board to the right side of the board encourage left to right directionality. This could also be incorporated into morning circle whiteboard tasks such as moving their photo from the left side of the board to the right side of the board to indicate they are at school today.


Provide students with opportunities to read interactive books that require them to touch each word to hear it read aloud. Use errorless learning to ensure that the student reads each word in order with left to right directionality.




Key Assessment Points



  • The level of prompting required for the student to complete a task should always be recorded.
  • Observation could occur throughout the school day in a variety of activities or during a structured assessment task. This could be captured on video or in photos and recorded in skill checklists/rubrics for analysis.
  • Consultation with outside agencies and therapists such as speech therapists may be able to provide additional assessment information.
  • Informal testing could be used to assess student responses to specific symbols.



Suggested Apps


Finger Motion
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