Every Student

R&V1 - Concepts about Print - Abstract and Verbal Symbolic

Teaching Strategies

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Questioning »
Modelling »
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Match to sample»
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Teaching Opportunities

Literacy sessions
Library sessions
Work schedules


Teaching Resources

Visual schedule
Accelerated Literacy programs
Laminated excerpts of texts
Visual timetable
Now...Then board
Variety of texts
Interactive books
Alphabet flashcards
Interactive apps, software and websites
Interactive touch screen devices


Levels Of Support

Full Physical Assistance (FP) »
Partial Physical Assistance (PP) »
Modelled Response (M) »
Gesture/Sign (G/S) »
Verbal (V) »
Independent (I) »


Programming Proforma

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Assessment Strategies

Peer and self assessment»


Assessment Record

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Syllabus Outcomes and Content
Syllabus Outcomes

Early Stage 1 Outcomes (2012)

ENe-4A A student demonstrates developing skills and strategies to read, view and comprehend short, predictable texts on familiar topics in different media and technologies

ENe-8B A student demonstrates emerging skills and knowledge of texts to read and view, and shows developing awareness of purpose, audience and subject matter

ENe-10C A student thinks imaginatively and creatively about familiar topics, simple ideas and the basic features of texts when responding to and composing texts

ENe-12E A student demonstrates awareness of how to reflect on aspects of their own and others’ learning

Life Skills 7-10 Outcomes (2012)

ENLS-4A A student views and responds to a range of visual texts, media and multimedia

ENLS-5A A student recognises and uses visual texts, media and multimedia for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

ENLS-6A A student reads and responds to a range of written texts in familiar contexts

ENLS-7A A student uses strategies to obtain meaning from and interpret a range of texts


HSC Life Skills 11-12 Outcomes (2007)

HSC LS4.1 Recognises individual photographs, pictures, symbols or words for personal use

HSC LS4.5 Comprehend and responds to a variety of texts in a range of formats to obtain information, engage in a range of recreation and leisure activities and to undertake further education, training and employment

HSC LS6.1 Recognises familiar objects and images when presented in a range of formats so as to make choices and communicate needs

HSC LS6.2 Views images and interprets their meaning, information and content

Syllabus Content

Early Stage 1 (ENe) Content 


-understand direction of print, return sweeps and spaces between words 4A

-understand concepts about print and screen, including how books, film and simple digital 
texts work, and know some features of print, for example directionality  4A

-distinguish print from drawings 8B

-recognise parts of print and digital texts, e.g. front and back covers, title and author, layout and navigation 8B

-recognise some different types of literary texts and identify some characteristic features of literary texts, for example beginnings and endings of traditional texts and rhyme in poetry 10C

Life Skills (ENLS) Content 


-recognise photographs, pictures or symbols as representations of familiar people, objects, venues 4A

-recognise symbols, signs and logos in everyday situations 4A

-read a variety of short, written texts for enjoyment or information  6A

-explore the ways features of visual texts, media and multimedia are used to create meaning for a range of purposes and audiences 5A


HSC Life Skills (LS) Content 


-select items and objects by identifying symbols or words 4.1

-scan visual material to select chosen content 6.2


English Learning Continuum Content

Recognises symbols, illustrations and text

Uses consistent left to right directionality 

Recognises symbols, illustrations and text

Use one text with the class for an extended period of time and read it on a daily basis, such as ‘Alexander’s Outing’ by Pamela Allen published by Penguin Books Australia. Where there are copies available, ensure all students have their own copy of the book to read along. If there is a big book version available, use it each time you read with the students and point out basic print concepts such as words, pictures, sentences and basic punctuation. Provide the least amount of support required for students to find examples in their copy of the text. Have students come to the front and point to the concepts of print you are looking at in the big book version.


Make two colour copies of the front cover or a page from a text that students are studying to teach concepts of print. Laminate both copies, cutting up one and using the other as a baseboard with Velcro ™ for students to engage in matching activities. When cutting up one copy, divide it up based on key concepts of print being taught such as words and illustrations or title, author and illustration. Explicitly teach the concepts to students during reading sessions and then use the laminated matching pages for students to identify each individual print concept.


Teach students the ‘Concepts about Print’ song from the blog titled ‘Mrs Jones’ Room’. The words to the song can be found here and are sung to the tune of Frere Jacques.


Uses consistent left to right directionality

Using an appropriate level of symbolic representation, present a student with a visual sequence. Read through the sequence with the student by encouraging them to point at or use their eyes to track the sequence using left to right directionality. Fade the level of support required to track and read the visual sequence from left to right as the student begins to demonstrate this skill consistently.


Encourage students to use left to right directionality in all written work including writing their own name or by placing a stamp or sticker on the left hand side of the page to indicate where to begin writing. Use tracing apps such as those suggested here to emphasise left to right directionality. Provide the student with the least amount of support required to complete the task.


When reading with students individually or in a group, always emphasise where to start reading on each page. Use a specialmarker such as a coloured star that can be attached to the book with blue tack to draw attention to where to begin reading. Invite students to place the marker on the book to show the class where to start reading. The marker can easily be removed and replaced on each page as the book is read.



Key Assessment Points


  • The level of prompting required for the student to complete a task should always be recorded.
  • Observation could occur throughout the school day in a variety of activities or during a structured assessment task. This could be captured on video or in photos and recorded in skill checklists/rubrics for analysis.
  • Consultation with outside agencies and therapists such as speech therapists may be able to provide additional assessment information.
  • Informal testing could be used to assess student responses to specific symbols.



Suggested Apps


Finger Motion
Let's Tracing