Every Student

LS&W2 - Phonemic Awareness - Abstract and Verbal Symbolic

Teaching Strategies

Guided practice »
Modelling »
Incidental teaching »
Strategic pausing »
Prompting »


Teaching Opportunities

Literacy sessions
Technology sessions
Leisure time


Teaching Resources

Interactive apps, software and websites
Letter cards
NSW DEC Interactive Literacy Continuum
Ants in the Apple
Alphabet songs and rhymes
Interactive touch screen devices


Levels Of Support

Full Physical Assistance (FP) »
Partial Physical Assistance (PP) »
Modelled Response (M) »
Gesture/Sign (G/S) »
Verbal (V) »
Independent (I) »


Programming Proforma

Download Program Proforma »


Assessment Strategies

Peer and self assessment»


Assessment Record

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Syllabus Outcomes and Content
Syllabus Outcomes

Early Stage 1 Outcomes (2012)

ENe-2A A student composes simple texts to convey an idea or message

ENe-4A A student demonstrates developing skills and strategies to read, view and comprehend short, predictable texts on familiar topics in different media and technologies

Life Skills 7-10 Outcomes (2012)

ENLS-6A A student reads and responds to a range of written texts in familiar contexts


HSC Life Skills 11-12 Outcomes (2007)


Syllabus Content

Early Stage 1 (ENe) Content 


-join in rhymes and chants 4A 

-understand that spoken words are made up of sounds 4A

-recognise rhymes, syllables and sounds (phonemes) in spoken words 4A

-consistently identify words that start with the same initial sound 4A

-segment words into onset and rime 4A

-identify the beginning and end sounds of words 4A

-orally blend two or three sounds to make a word 4A

-segment simple spoken words into separate sounds 4A

-identify the new word when asked to delete or add a phoneme (sound) to an existing spoken word 4A

-identify most of the sounds and name all letters in a given word 4A

-use knowledge of letters and sounds to decode words, including those in initial, final and medial positions 4A



Life Skills (ENLS) Content 




HSC Life Skills (LS) Content 




English Learning Continuum Content

Makes letter sounds Repeats letter sound patterns  


Makes letter sounds

Model how to produce letter sounds for students and encourage them to repeat the sound. Always use exaggerated mouth movements and correct student’s articulation of the sound.


Encourage students to sing along during sound songs such as Ants in the Apple, the ABC Song and BINGO.


Use speech apps such as Talking Lila the Fairy or Furry Talking Penguin 3D HD to encourage students to make letter sounds. These apps will play the sound back to students.


Leave out words and/or sounds when singing alphabet songs. Expect students to complete the final word or letter sound. For example sing, “M is for Michael M M M.” to ‘Ants in the Apple’ tune.


Repeats letter sound patterns

Apps and online games provide students with the opportunities to touch or click on letter buttons to hear the letter sound. Encourage students to repeat the letter sounds. Apps include Speech Stickers, Speech Buttons Free, Talking English Alphabet Free and Talking Memory ABC. Websites which include online alphabet games include Starfall ABCs, PBS Kids Alphabet Games and Poisson Rouge ABC.


Use the teaching ideas for the 1st Cluster (Best Start level 0) Interactive Literacy Continuum - Resources for Phonemic Awareness. This is accessible only to NSW Department of Education and Communities (DEC) staff via the DEC portal.


Use the NSW DEC publication entitled Literacy teaching guide: Phonemic awareness (© State of New South Wales through the Department) for further information and ideas.


Play speech and rhyme games with students when sharing a text or song. For example, clap when the ‘p’ sound occurs or click when words rhyme.


Create simple letter patterns on flashcards and have students say the sound patterns represented on the card.


Create multiple copies of flashcards representing each letter in the alphabet. Make patterns using the letters that students are required to complete and verbalise.



Key Assessment Points



  • The level of prompting required for the student to complete a task should always be recorded.
  • Observation could occur throughout the school day in a variety of activities or during a structured assessment task. This could be captured on video and recorded in skill checklists/rubrics for analysis.
  • Consultation with outside agencies and therapists such as speech therapists may be able to provide additional assessment information.
  • Informal or standardised tests could be used, for example, Educheck, Best Start, MultiLit or Ants in the Apple.



Suggested Apps


Talking Lila the Fairy
Talking Penguin 3D HD
Speech Button Free
Talking Alphabet English Free
Talking Memory ABC