Every Student

LS&W1 - Producing Text - Concrete Symbolic

Teaching Strategies

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Blocking access »
Match to sample»
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Teaching Opportunities

Morning circle
Technology sessions
Leisure time
Work tasks
Creative play
Art activities
Outdoor play
Cooking sessions


Teaching Resources

Switch toys
Interactive whiteboard files
Interactive apps, software and websites
Cause and effect items
Voice Output Communication Aids
Interactive touch screen devices
Switch activated equipment
Writing implements
Interactive whiteboard
'Big Keys' keyboard
Colour pattern cards
Coloured stickers
Art or desk easels
Special interest pictures
PowerPoint presentations


Levels Of Support

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Programming Proforma

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Assessment Strategies



Assessment Record

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Syllabus Outcomes and Content
Syllabus Outcomes

Early Stage 1 Outcomes (2012)

ENe-3A A student produces most lower case and upper case letters and uses digital technologies to construct texts

ENe-4A A student demonstrates developing skills and strategies to read, view and comprehend short, predictable texts on familiar topics in different media and technologies

ENe-7B A student recognises some different purposes for writing and that own texts differ in various ways

Life Skills 7-10 Outcomes (2012)

ENLS-2A A student communicates for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

ENLS-5A A student recognises and uses visual texts media and multimedia for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

ENLS-8A A student writes short texts for everyday purposes

ENLS-11B A student composes, publishes and presents texts appropriate to purpose and audience in a range of contexts

HSC Life Skills 11-12 Outcomes (2007)

HSC LS5.1 Copies symbols, pictures, letters or words

HSC LS5.3 Writes and transfers specific information using standard formats

Syllabus Content

Early Stage 1 (ENe) Content Students:

-use simple functions of keyboard and mouse, including typing letters, scrolling, selecting icons and dropdown menus 3A

-experiment using digital technologies e.g. produce own name, commonly used words and simple sentences 3A

-construct texts using software including word processing programs 3A

-understand foundation movements that underpin NSW Foundation Style 3A

-use foundation movements as a basis for the introduction of formal letters when composing simple imaginative and other texts for enjoyment or to convey an idea or experience 3A

-develop basic skills of writing, including correct pencil grip, good posture, handwriting movements and accurate use of alternative writing tools, to form some lower case and upper case letters 3A

-write from left to right and leave spaces between words 3A

-produce some lower case and upper case letters using learned letter formations 3A

-recognise the letters of the alphabet and know there are lower and upper case letters 4A

-demonstrate an awareness of written forms of communication, including labels, symbols, emails, letters and photographs 7B



Life Skills (ENLS) Content Students:

-select and use appropriate means of communication, including technology, for a particular audience 2A

-recognise how technology is used for different purposes and audiences in film, websites and other multimedia texts 5A

-construct short texts using visual aids and/or appropriate technology 8A

-complete personal details in a range of formats for a variety of purposes 8A

-recognise the range of conventions used in written texts 8A

-write short texts using correct conventions 8A

-write own name 8A

-write signature in consistent form 8A

-construct short texts using visual aids and/or appropriate technology 8A

-write short texts 8A

-transfer information from one source to another 8A

-write about familiar topics for everyday purposes 8A

-use a range of technology to create meaning when composing texts 11B

-select and use a range of technology and strategies to create visual and multimedia texts for particular purposes, contexts and audiences 11B

-explore ways to present information using appropriate technology and strategies 11B

HSC Life Skills (LS) Content Students:

-copy letters or symbols to represent their own names on official documents and personal correspondence 5.1

-copy their own names and personal details in appropriate formats 5.1

-develop strategies to copy personal details from one format to another 5.1

-write their own names in signature format or equivalent by hand or using technology 5.3

-write, using technology, to request information 5.3


English Learning Continuum Content

Uses a switch for a purpose (cause & effect) Uses a touch and release action to make a selection on an interactive screen Makes an intentional mark
Randomly hits individual keys on a keyboard    

Uses a switch for a purpose (cause & effect) 

Model how to activate a switch (cause) and verbalise the response (effect) to the student. Provide guided practice opportunities for students to do this and verbalise the actions and effects to reinforce the link. Examples of switch activated cause and effect games and activities include:


  • Turning on and off switch adapted equipment such as CD players, lights, fans, blenders etc.
  • Switch activated toys such as soft toys, art making toys, motorised toys, musical toys etc.


Randomly hits individual keys on a keyboard

Model using an index finger to touch keys on a keyboard to play the Lots of Babies Tap and Type Game. Assist students to touch one key at a time to activate a sound and animation related to that key. Praise students for hitting only one key at a time by saying, “SN is touching one key. Well done!”


Restrict access to the entire keyboard by making an overlay with only a few individual keys exposed. Support the student to touch the exposed keys one at a time. Begin with exposed keys that are spread around the keyboard and increase difficulty by using exposed keys that are side by side. Place coloured stickers on various keys and play games such as ‘Simon Says’ e.g. “Simon says touch the red key”. Other ideas which utilise coloured stickers on various keys include:


  • A student copying a sequence from a colour pattern card by hitting the keys with the appropriate coloured sticker in the correct order
  • Make coloured pattern card flipbooks beginning with one colour per page and building up to three or four colours per page. Students copy the coloured pattern on each page of the flipbook by hitting the corresponding keys on the keyboard. Use Mayer-Johnson’s Boardmaker Writing with Symbols to make this activity interactive.


Uses a touch and release motion to make a selection on an interactive screen

Use an appropriate level of prompting to enable students to touch specific symbols on the interactive whiteboard that activate sounds or animations. Activities include:


  • PowerPoint presentations that require a touch to move through the slides  
  • Online games and activities such as Fly Swatter, Blast the Pirate Ship and Gophers
  • Apps connected to the IWB such as Ant Smasher, Bubble Free, Fireworks and Touch Pets



Makes an intentional mark

Model making marks on a surface (e.g. paper, whiteboard, chalkboard, iPad) in response to a favoured story, activity or item. This could be done by writing a few words or drawing simple pictures. After modelling encourage students to use a writing implement to make marks on the same surface. Provide a choice of writing implements and surfaces for students to select and use to motivate them. Accept and praise any markings made on the writing surface. Use the least amount of prompting necessary for students to engage in writing tasks. Fade support gradually to ensure that students are intentionally making marks on a surface. Examples of writing implements and surfaces include:


Writing Implements Writing Surfaces
Thick grip pencils, crayons, textas, palm grip markers Paper – assorted colours
Thick grip chalk Chalkboard
Stylus pens for iPad iPad
Interactive whiteboard pens Interactive whiteboard screen
Whiteboard markers Whiteboard
Paint/Paintbrushes Butchers paper
  Bricks, concrete, boxes





Key Assessment Points


  • The level of prompting required for the student to complete a task should always be recorded.
  • Observation could occur throughout the school day in a variety of activities or during a structured literacy assessment task. This could be captured on video or in photos and recorded in skill checklists/rubrics.
  • Consultation with outside agencies and therapists such as occupational therapists could provide additional assessment information.
  • Work samples could be collected and analysed to assess skills such as making an intentional mark or hitting keys on a keyboard by printing out a student’s piece of work.



Suggested Apps


BBBox Animals
Bubble Free
Fireworks 123