Every Student

EXS2 - Expressing Self Through Writing - Concrete Symbolic

Teaching Strategies

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Distractors »
Errorless learning »
Touch cues »
Motivators »
Modelling »
Prompting »
Blocking access »
Match to sample»

 

Teaching Opportunities

Activity schedules
Shared reading
Work schedules
Vocational education
Sign on sheets
Work tasks

 

Teaching Resources

Distractors
Morning circle file
Real objects
Remnants
Visual sequence boards
Visual schedule
Pictorial stories
Student names
Symbols
Photos
PCS
Student photos
Interactive apps, software and websites
Augmentative communication supports
Interactive touch screen devices

 

Levels Of Support

Full Physical Assistance (FP) »
Partial Physical Assistance (PP) »
Modelled Response (M) »
Gesture/Sign (G/S) »
Verbal (V) »
Independent (I) »

 

Programming Proforma

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Assessment Strategies

Observation»
Questioning»
Analysis»
Peer and self assessment»
Consultation»

 

Assessment Record

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Syllabus Outcomes and Content
Syllabus Outcomes

Early Stage 1 Outcomes (2012)

ENe-2A A student composes simple texts to convey an idea or message

ENe-4A A student demonstrates developing skills and strategies to read, view and comprehend short, predictable texts on familiar topics in different media and technologies

ENe-7B A student recognises some different purposes for writing and that own texts differ in various ways

ENe-9B A student demonstrates developing skills and knowledge in grammar, punctuation and vocabulary when responding to and composing texts

ENe-11D A student responds to and composes simple texts about familiar aspects of the world and their own experiences

Life Skills 7-10 Outcomes (2012)

ENLS-4A
A student views and responds to a range of visual texts, media and multimedia

ENLS-5A A student recognises and uses visual texts media and multimedia for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

ENLS-8A
A student writes short texts for everyday purposes

ENLS-9A A student composes texts for a variety of purposes and audiences

 

HSC Life Skills 11-12 Outcomes (2007)

HSC LS4.1 Recognises individual photographs, pictures, symbols or words for personal use 

HSC LS5.2 Uses symbolic representations of ideas to produce visual messages

 

Syllabus Content

Early Stage 1 (ENe) Content Students:

-drawing on their experience of language and texts, begin to understand that writing and representing can be used to convey an idea or message 2A

-create short texts to explore, record and report ideas and events using familiar words and beginning writing knowledge 2A

-know that spoken sounds and words can be written down using letters of the alphabet and how to write some high-frequency sight words and known words 2A

-experiment using digital technologies, e.g. produce own name, commonly used words and simple sentences 3A

-produce some lower case and upper case letters using learned letter formations 3A

-recognise high-frequency words, including own name 4A

-identify most of the sounds and name all letters in a given word 4A

-retell a familiar story in sequence and identify main idea 4A

-demonstrate an awareness of written forms of communication, including labels, symbols, emails, letters and photographs 7B

-compose texts using drawings and other visual media to create meaning 7B

-compose effective sentences in writing using appropriate word order 9B

- compose simple written and visual texts that include aspects of home, personal and local community life 11D

-use visual, multimodal and digital processes to represent simple aspects of home and community life 11D

Life Skills (ENLS) Content Students:

-create simple visual texts to convey a message 4A

-respond to a range of visual texts, media and multimedia for a variety of purposes in a range of contexts 5A

-use photographs, pictures, symbols and visual aids for a variety of purposes, e.g. to respond to questions about a movie clip, to indicate sequencing and narrative flow 5A

-use photographs, pictures, symbols and visual aids for a variety of purposes 5A

-use visual texts to communicate with a variety of audiences 5A

-construct short texts using visual aids and/or appropriate technology 8A

-write short texts 8A

-transfer information from one source to another 8A

-write about familiar topics for everyday purposes 8A

-write own name 8A

-write signature in consistent form 8A

-complete personal details in a range of formats for a variety of purposes 8A

-compose short texts, drawing on personal experiences, using simple textual features appropriate to purpose and audience 9A

 

HSC Life Skills (LS) Content Students:

-recognise and follow daily routines, using photographs, pictures and symbols 4.1

-select material with photographs or pictures of family members or friends, for personal enjoyment 4.1

-use small photographs or line drawings in a personal collection to convey a message to known and unknown people in different contexts 5.2

-use photographs or line drawings to produce lists or schedules 5.2

-access a computer to produce visual messages 5.2

-use small photographs or line drawings in a personal collection to convey a message to known and unknown people in different contexts 5.2

-write consistent symbols to represent their own names 5.2

 


English Learning Continuum Content

Matches concrete objects 1:1

Responds to pictures / symbols

Matches a visual sequence

Matches symbols in pictorial stories

Matches own photo to own photo

Matches own name to own name

Matches concrete objects 1:1

Present the student with two identical objects and say, “SN, look at the …” Sign and say ‘same’. Place one object in the student’s hand, physically prompt them to grasp the second object and put them together. Say and sign, “SN, look, same”.

 

Responds to pictures/symbols

Place a motivating photo, symbol or book illustration in front of a student and say, “SN, look, ……..!” Praise the student when they make a purposeful response such as turning their head/eyes, moving body position, pausing, looking, reaching for, grasping or vocalising.

 

Matches a visual sequence

Present the student with a familiar visual sequence on a baseboard with the matching velcroed symbols and words. Model how to match each photo/symbol/picture and say/sign, “SN, look, same, ………”. Use the least amount of support required for the student to successfully match the velcroed symbols/pictures to the baseboard. The difficulty of this activity can be modified by initially presenting the student with only the first photo/symbol/picture needed in order to encourage matching in a sequential order.

 

Matches symbols in pictorial stories

Present the student with a personalised, pictorial story with matching velcroed photos/symbols. Model how to match each photo/symbol and say/sign, “SN, same,…..”. Provide the least amount of support required for the student to successfully match velcroed photos/symbols to personalised, pictorial stories. Use errorless learning to block access to an incorrect photo/symbol choice initiated by the student. Guide them to the correct photo/symbol choice and assist them to match it with the corresponding photo/symbol.

 

Matches own photo to own photo

Present a student with two photos of their face side by side. Use a touch cue on the student’s shoulder while saying their name. Immediately follow this by touching the photos, saying the student’s name again and saying/signing, “Same!”. Repeat this a few times, ensuring that the student is looking at the photos. Model matching the student’s own photo to their own photo, saying their name and signing, “Same!” once again. Use the least amount of prompting necessary to support the student to successfully match their own photo with their own photo. Always emphasise the concept of ‘same’ and the link between the student and their image. Praise the student and fade the level of support until the student is able to complete this task independently. This activity could also be completed using laminated and velcroed photos at a desk.

 

When the student is able to complete the above task independently, increase the level of difficulty of the task by including distractors such as a blank card, an object picture, an animal picture, an unfamiliar person and finally another student’s photo from the same class. Support the student to match their own photo to their own photo. Block access to incorrect photos to ensure the student matches their own photo to their own photo successfully each time.

 

Matches own name to own name

Create an interactive whiteboard file with one fixed and one moveable name label. Ensure that there is a photo of the student on the page, separate from the written names, to highlight to the student that the written words say their name. Touch the student’s shoulder while you state their name and immediately follow this by touching the written names, reading them aloud and saying/signing “Same!” Repeat this a few times, ensuring that the student is looking at the written words. Model matching the student’s own name to their own name, reading it aloud and saying/signing, “Same!” again as you drag the moveable name label over the top of the fixed one. Use the least amount of prompting necessary to support the student to successfully match their own name to their own name by dragging and dropping the labels on the interactive whiteboard. Continue to emphasise the concept of ‘same’ and the link between the student and the written words by using touch cues. Praise the student for matching them correctly and fade the level of support required until the student is able to complete this task independently. This activity could also be completed using laminated/velcroed name cards at a desk.

 

When the student is able to complete the above task independently, increase the level difficulty of the task by including distractors such as a blank card, nonsense words or real words that differ significantly from the student’s name, and finally another student’s name from the same class.  Support the student to match own name to own name. Use blocking to ensure that the student matches own name to own name successfully each time.

 

 

 

Key Assessment Points


 

  • The level of prompting required for the student to complete a task should always be recorded.
  • Observation could occur throughout the school day in a variety of activities when assessing these skills.
  • Skill checklists/rubrics could be used to assess some of these skills. 
  • Consultation with outside agencies and therapists such as speech therapists may be able to provide additional assessment information.
  • Informal testing could be used to assess student skills in this area.

 

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