Every Student

EXS2 - Expressing Self Through Writing - Abstract and Verbal Symbolic

Teaching Strategies

Guided practice »
Errorless learning »
Distractors »
Backward chaining »
Provide opportunities for choice »
Modelling »
Prompting »
Match to sample»
Scaffolding »
Explicit teaching »

 

Teaching Opportunities

Morning circle
Vocational education
Work schedules
Activity schedules
Games
Living skills
Interactions
Leisure time
Sign on sheets
Work tasks

 

Teaching Resources

Communication apps
Pictorial stories
BINGO games
Student names
Home/school diary
PCS
Letter cards
Student photos
Alphabet flashcards
Interactive apps, software and websites
Letter blocks
Augmentative communication supports
Interactive touch screen devices

 

Levels Of Support

Full Physical Assistance (FP) »
Partial Physical Assistance (PP) »
Modelled Response (M) »
Gesture/Sign (G/S) »
Verbal (V) »
Independent (I) »

 

Programming Proforma

Download Program Proforma »

 

Assessment Strategies

Observation»
Questioning»
Analysis»
Peer and self assessment»
Consultation»

 

Assessment Record

Download Assessment Record »
Syllabus Outcomes and Content
Syllabus Outcomes

Early Stage 1 Outcomes (2012)

ENe-2A A student composes simple texts to convey an idea or message

ENe-4A A student demonstrates developing skills and strategies to read, view and comprehend short, predictable texts on familiar topics in different media and technologies

ENe-7B A student recognises some different purposes for writing and that own texts differ in various ways

ENe-9B A student demonstrates developing skills and knowledge in grammar, punctuation and vocabulary when responding to and composing texts

ENe-11D A student responds to and composes simple texts about familiar aspects of the world and their own experiences

Life Skills 7-10 Outcomes (2012)

ENLS-4A
A student views and responds to a range of visual texts, media and multimedia

ENLS-5A A student recognises and uses visual texts media and multimedia for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

ENLS-8A
A student writes short texts for everyday purposes

ENLS-9A A student composes texts for a variety of purposes and audiences

 

HSC Life Skills 11-12 Outcomes (2007)

HSC LS4.1 Recognises individual photographs, pictures, symbols or words for personal use 

HSC LS5.2 Uses symbolic representations of ideas to produce visual messages

 

Syllabus Content

Early Stage 1 (ENe) Content Students:

-drawing on their experience of language and texts, begin to understand that writing and representing can be used to convey an idea or message 2A

-create short texts to explore, record and report ideas and events using familiar words and beginning writing knowledge 2A

-know that spoken sounds and words can be written down using letters of the alphabet and how to write some high-frequency sight words and known words 2A

-experiment using digital technologies, e.g. produce own name, commonly used words and simple sentences 3A

-produce some lower case and upper case letters using learned letter formations 3A

-recognise high-frequency words, including own name 4A

-identify most of the sounds and name all letters in a given word 4A

-retell a familiar story in sequence and identify main idea 4A

-demonstrate an awareness of written forms of communication, including labels, symbols, emails, letters and photographs 7B

-compose texts using drawings and other visual media to create meaning 7B

-compose effective sentences in writing using appropriate word order 9B

- compose simple written and visual texts that include aspects of home, personal and local community life 11D

-use visual, multimodal and digital processes to represent simple aspects of home and community life 11D

Life Skills (ENLS) Content Students:

-create simple visual texts to convey a message 4A

-respond to a range of visual texts, media and multimedia for a variety of purposes in a range of contexts 5A

-use photographs, pictures, symbols and visual aids for a variety of purposes, e.g. to respond to questions about a movie clip, to indicate sequencing and narrative flow 5A

-use photographs, pictures, symbols and visual aids for a variety of purposes 5A

-use visual texts to communicate with a variety of audiences 5A

-construct short texts using visual aids and/or appropriate technology 8A

-write short texts 8A

-transfer information from one source to another 8A

-write about familiar topics for everyday purposes 8A

-write own name 8A

-write signature in consistent form 8A

-complete personal details in a range of formats for a variety of purposes 8A

-compose short texts, drawing on personal experiences, using simple textual features appropriate to purpose and audience 9A

 

HSC Life Skills (LS) Content Students:

-recognise and follow daily routines, using photographs, pictures and symbols 4.1

-select material with photographs or pictures of family members or friends, for personal enjoyment 4.1

-use small photographs or line drawings in a personal collection to convey a message to known and unknown people in different contexts 5.2

-use photographs or line drawings to produce lists or schedules 5.2

-access a computer to produce visual messages 5.2

-use small photographs or line drawings in a personal collection to convey a message to known and unknown people in different contexts 5.2

-write consistent symbols to represent their own names 5.2

 


English Learning Continuum Content

Matches pictures & symbols 1:1

Uses pictures and symbols with meaning

Completes a visual sequence

Constructs a visual sequence

Chooses symbols to complete pictorial stories
Matches written name to photo
Matches letters in name
Sequences letters in name  

Matches pictures & symbols 1:1

Present the student with a baseboard and matching picture symbols velcroed on top. Initially use 2 picture symbols and gradually add more symbols to increase the level of difficulty of the task. Direct the student to match symbols and pictures 1:1 using the following steps:

 

1. Point to each symbol and say/sign it for the student. Repeat a second time with the student touching or pointing to each symbol as it is named.  

 
2. Remove the velcroed symbols from the baseboard and present the student with one symbol at a time. Say, “Match (or put)…….”, and assist the student to pickup the symbol and match it to the corresponding symbol on the baseboard. Use errorless learning as a strategy to ensure success in the initial stages of this task.

Play BINGO games using symbols a student is learning to recognise. Create a covered tile grid on an interactive touch screen device such as an IWB that has the symbols hidden underneath. Create a class set of laminated baseboards with some of the symbols that are represented in the tile grid. Select one student to be the ‘caller’ and give the remaining students, ‘players’, a BINGO baseboard with a set of counters/cards/BINGO markers. The caller touches the interactive screen to turn a tile over and reveal the symbol. The players use the counters/cards/BINGO marker to cover the symbols as they are revealed.

Provide the least amount of support required for the students to participate in the BINGO game and ensure that the player who covers all of their symbols first calls 'BINGO!' It may also be appropriate to set up the game so that all players will call 'BINGO' at once


Uses pictures and symbols with meaning

Model how to use a sentence strip to construct a sentence using a starter such as ‘I like’. Ensure both words and symbols are used in the sentence starter. Allow the student to select from an array of favoured items represented by words and symbols. Provide the least amount of support necessary for the student to select and place one item they like onto the sentence strip. Read the constructed sentence for the student whilst pointing to each word/symbol and encourage the student to read it with or after you.

 

The above activity could also be completed after sharing a story with students. Use a sentence starter such as ‘I see’ and provide the student with a selection of symbols with words representing items from the story. Provide the least amount of support necessary for the student to select and place one item they can see onto the sentence strip. Read the constructed sentence for the student whilst pointing to each word/symbol and encourage the student to read it with or after you.

This activity could be completed using a range of resources such as laminated cards, interactive touch screendevices, Go Talk Communicators or a variety of apps including Proloquo2Go.

 

Completes a visual sequence

Present the student with a familiar visual sequence to represent an activity such as swimming, a cooking routine, recipes, bike riding or unpacking a bag. Read through the sequence with the student whilst pointing to each step to ensure that they understand the meaning of each labelled symbol in the sequence. Use backward chaining to assist the student to recognise the sequence order and complete it accordingly. Initially remove only the final step of the sequence and give it to the student to complete. When mastered, remove the final two steps and so on until the student is ready to move to constructing the entire visual sequence.

 

Constructs a visual sequence

Provide the student with a set of labelled symbols and a blank grid for a sequence they have previously learnt to complete. Direct the student to construct the visual sequence in order. Block access to ensure the student completes the sequence correctly.

 

Allow students to take photos and/or videos during an activity or excursion. Provide the least amount of support required for the students to use the photos and/or video to construct a visual sequence of the event. A variety of the pictured apps could be used to support this activity and Apps such as Miss Robin’s Room can be used to provide students with the opportunity to engage in sequencing activities on interactive touch screens and devices.

 

Chooses symbols to complete pictorial stories

Use home/school diaries, giving news or weekend recounts as opportunities to engage students in activities that require them to choose symbols to complete pictorial stories about themselves or other familiar people. Model the activity using your own experiences to demonstrate how to complete the pictorial story. Provide students with the least amount of support required to choose symbols to complete their own pictorial story specific to the activity. Fade the amount of support required until the student is able to independently complete the activity. This activity could be completed using a variety of resources such as:

 

Pictello SMART Notebook Laminated cards Boardmaker

   

 

Matches written name to photo

Use morning circle as an opportunity to teach students how to match their written name to their photo. This could be done on an interactive touch screen or on a morning circle board. Provide the student with the least amount of support required to match their written name with their photo, initially ensuring that these are the only two options available to them. Once the student is able to complete the above task independently, increase the difficulty by including distractors, for example, blank cards, nonsense words, real words that differ significantly from the student’s name, and finally another student’s name from the same class. Support the student to select their written name from amongst the distractors and match it to their photo. Use blocking to ensure that the student matches their written name to their photo successfully each time.

 

Matches letters in name

Model how to match the letters of a student’s name, stating the name of the letter as you place it in the correct order on the sample. Provide the student with the least amount of support necessary to successfully match to sample the letters of their name always ensuring that they work from left to right. Cover the sample leaving only the first or next letter in the name visible. Provide the student with all the letters in their name from which to select and match to the visible letter on the sample. It is important to say the name of each letter for the student as they match them and always encourage the student to say the letter name after you. 

 

Sequences letters in name

Model how to sequence the letters of a student’s name while stating the name of the letter as you place it in the sequence.Provide the student with the least amount of support necessary to successfully sequence the letters of their own name always ensuring that they work from left to right. Use blocking to ensure that the student selects the next letter in the sequence and places it correctly. It is important to say the name of each letter for the student as they sequence them and always encourage the student to say the letter name after you. This activity could be completed using a variety of motivating resources such as:

 

 

 

Tactile letters Duplo letters   Name writing apps

 

 

Interactive whiteboard   Stamps   Personalised name puzzles

 

 

 

Key Assessment Points


 

  • The level of prompting required for the student to complete a task should always be recorded.
  • Observation could occur throughout the school day in a variety of activities or during a structured assessment task. This could be captured on video or in photos and recorded in skill checklists/rubrics for analysis.
  • Informal testing could be used to assess student responses to specific symbols.

 

 

Suggested Apps

 

ABCDrive