Every Student

EXS1 - Commenting - Concrete Symbolic

Teaching Strategies

Questioning »
Modelling »
Prompting »
Blocking access »


Teaching Opportunities

Morning circle
Music sessions
Sensory play
Cooking sessions


Teaching Resources

Beanbag songs
Wait symbol
Morning circle file
Shaving cream
Musical instruments
Interactive apps, software and websites
Interactive touch screen devices
Interactive whiteboard


Levels Of Support

Full Physical Assistance (FP) »
Partial Physical Assistance (PP) »
Modelled Response (M) »
Gesture/Sign (G/S) »
Verbal (V) »
Independent (I) »


Programming Proforma

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Assessment Strategies



Assessment Record

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Syllabus Outcomes and Content
Syllabus Outcomes

Early Stage 1 Outcomes (2012)

ENe-1A A student recognises different methods of communication

ENE-4A A student demonstrates developing skills and strategies to read, view and comprehend short, predictable texts on familiar topics in different media and technologies

ENe-6B A student recognises that there are different kinds of spoken texts with specific language features and shows an emerging awareness of some purposes for spoken language

ENe-7B A student recognises some different purposes for writing and that own texts differ in various ways

ENe-8B A student demonstrates emerging skills and knowledge of texts to read and view, and shows developing awareness of purpose, audience and subject matter

ENe-11D A student responds to and composes simple texts about familiar aspects of the world and their own experiences


Life Skills 7-10 Outcomes (2012)

ENLS-2A A student communicates for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

A student views and responds to a range of visual texts, media and  multimedia

ENLS-5A A student recognises and uses visual texts media and multimedia for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

A student writes short texts foreveryday purposes

A student explores how the use of language affects personal roles and relationships with others

A student responds to and composes texts that explore personal, social and world issues

A student uses individual and collaborative skills in the learning process


HSC Life Skills 11-12 Outcomes (2007)

HSC LS1.1 Gives attention to another person, an object or an event in their environment

HSC LS1.3 Makes requests to satisfy needs and wants and to obtain services or assistance

HSC LS1.4 Lets others know that they approve or disapprove of actions and accept or reject objects, services or assistance appropriately

HSC LS1.5 Makes choices and expresses preferences, emotions and feelings

HSC LS1.6 Gives information, comments, asks questions spontaneously or on request

HSC LS2.2 Expresses agreement or disagreement and expresses pleasure or disappointment

HSC LS2.4 Answers questions and gives explanations

HSC LS2.7 Makes requests for services, information or assistance

HSC LS6.1 Recognises familiar objects and images when presented in a range of formats so as to make choices and communicate needs

Syllabus Content

Early Stage 1 (ENe) Content 


-compose texts to communicate feelings, needs, opinions and ideas 6B

-recognise different methods of communication 6B

-recognise that there are different ways of using spoken language to communicate 6B

-compose texts to communicate feelings, needs, opinions and ideas 6B

-demonstrate an awareness of written forms of communication, including labels, symbols, emails, letters and photographs 7B

-understand that language can be used to describe likes and dislikes 11B

Life Skills (ENLS) Content 


-use non-verbal indicators to communicate for a variety of purposes such as to request and reject 2A

-communicate personal needs 2A

-create simple visual texts to convey a message 4A

-recognise symbols, signs and logos in everyday situations 5A

-recognise signs and symbols with universal meaning 5A

-use photographs, pictures, symbols and visual aids for a variety of purposes 5A

-use visual texts to communicate with a variety of audiences  5A

-construct short texts using visual aids and/or appropriate technology 8A

-identify how the aspects of context affect features of language, 14D

-recognise the ways in which ideas and points of view can be expressed in a range of spoken, written, visual and multimedia texts 15D

HSC Life Skills (LS) Content 


-stand or position themselves appropriately to indicate giving attention to another person 1.1

-express feelings of comfort, discomfort, pleasure or pain 1.5

-express emotions and feelings in age-appropriate and socially-appropriate ways 1.5

-convey information through vocalisation, gesture, sign, communication device or speech in response to initiation from others 1.6

-convey personal information, when appropriate, by using communication devices or speech  in response to request from others  1.6

-give information or comments on specific matters, in response to a question from others, in an appropriate manner using communication devices or speech 1.6


English Learning Continuum Content

Recognises photos, symbols and signs
Develops meaning into concepts e.g. waiting
Responds by changing facial expressions and body language
Makes intentional response    

Recognises photos, symbols and signs

During morning circle ask each student to come to the interactive whiteboard by saying “SN, you are at school today. Put your photo in the ‘At School’ box.” Use the least amount of prompting to support the student to select a photo of themselves and move it to an area of the board which has a photo of the school or their classroom on it.


Display a musical instrument such as a tambourine, and a distractor such as a sock, within the student’s line of vision but out of their reach. Present the student with a PCS of the tambourine, and ask them “Would you like to play the tambourine? Give me the picture of it.” When the student looks at, points to or picks up the picture of the tambourine, direct them to where the instrument and the sock are displayed, pointing to the picture of the tambourine. If the student selects the musical instrument, let them play it and say, “Well done, SN. You chose the tambourine.” If the student attempts to take the sock, block access and point to the picture saying, “You chose the tambourine, SN. Show me the tambourine.” Use least to most prompting to assist the student to select the tambourine.


Develops meaning into concepts e.g. waiting

When the bell goes direct students in your class to line up in front of the classroom. Hold a large PCS of ‘wait’ up and verbally label it by saying, “We need to wait until we are all ready to go into our classroom.” After a short amount of time say to the group, “Well done, everyone. We have waited well. Now we can go in.”


During a cooking session ask a student to place a slice of bread into the toaster. Hold a large PCS of ‘wait’ up and verbally label it by saying, “SN, you need to wait until your toast pops up before you can eat it.” When the toast pops up allow the student to take it and say, “SN, you waited well. Now you can eat your toast.”


Beanbag games can be used to help teach concepts such as turn taking and sharing. There are also a large variety of apps such as Sharing Timer or Kids Turn Timer to visually represent and support teaching the concept of turn taking.


Responds by changing facial expressions and body language

Determine sensory materials a student has an aversion to and those that they tolerate. Offer the student a material which they are intolerant of, such as shaving cream, by putting some on the table in front of them. When the student’s expression changes, they turn their body or head away from the desk or they push the desk away, say, “SN, you really don’t like shaving cream.” Wipe the shaving cream off the desk. Undertake the same activity with a material that the student enjoys interacting with, such as sand. When the student’s expression changes, they move their body towards the material, or they touch it say, “SN, you really like sand.” Allow the student to play with the sand or use the least amount of prompting required to help them interact with it.


Makes intentional response

Take students to the trampoline and direct them to wait. Ask the group, “Who would like a turn?” When a student changes their expression, body language or vocalises to indicate that they would like a turn immediately say, “SN, you can have a turn on the trampoline.”


After an activity that the student enjoys, such as swimming, ask the student if they liked it by saying “SN, is swimming fun?” Allow time for the student to reply with either a vocalisation, such as “Swimming is fun.” or a gesture of thumbs up indicating ‘yes’. 



Key Assessment Points



  • The level of prompting required for the student to complete a task should always be recorded.
  • Observation could occur throughout the school day in a variety of activities when assessing these skills.
  • Skill checklists/rubrics could be used to assess some of these skills.
  • Informal testing can be used to assess student skills in this area. 



Suggested Apps


Your turn - Kid Timer