Every Student

EXS1 - Accepting & Rejecting - Concrete Symbolic

Teaching Strategies

Attribute meaning »
Questioning »
Modelling »
Contingent responding »
Incidental teaching »
Prompting »
Shaping »


Teaching Opportunities

Morning circle
Technology sessions
Leisure time
Work tasks


Teaching Resources

Preferred items
Non-preferred items
'Finished' box
Yes/No cards
Interactive whiteboard


Levels Of Support

Full Physical Assistance (FP) »
Partial Physical Assistance (PP) »
Modelled Response (M) »
Gesture/Sign (G/S) »
Verbal (V) »
Independent (I) »


Programming Proforma

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Assessment Strategies



Assessment Record

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Syllabus Outcomes and Content
Syllabus Outcomes

Early Stage 1 Outcomes (2012)

ENe-1A A student recognises different methods of communication

ENE-4A A student demonstrates developing skills and strategies to read, view and comprehend short, predictable texts on familiar topics in different media and technologies

ENe-6B A student recognises that there are different kinds of spoken texts with specific language features and shows an emerging awareness of some purposes for spoken language

ENe-7B A student recognises some different purposes for writing and that own texts differ in various ways

ENe-8B A student demonstrates emerging skills and knowledge of texts to read and view, and shows developing awareness of purpose, audience and subject matter

ENe-11D A student responds to and composes simple texts about familiar aspects of the world and their own experiences


Life Skills 7-10 Outcomes (2012)

ENLS-2A A student communicates for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

A student views and responds to a range of visual texts, media and  multimedia

ENLS-5A A student recognises and uses visual texts media and multimedia for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

A student writes short texts foreveryday purposes

A student explores how the use of language affects personal roles and relationships with others

A student responds to and composes texts that explore personal, social and world issues

A student uses individual and collaborative skills in the learning process


HSC Life Skills 11-12 Outcomes (2007)

HSC LS1.1 Gives attention to another person, an object or an event in their environment

HSC LS1.3 Makes requests to satisfy needs and wants and to obtain services or assistance

HSC LS1.4 Lets others know that they approve or disapprove of actions and accept or reject objects, services or assistance appropriately

HSC LS1.5 Makes choices and expresses preferences, emotions and feelings

HSC LS1.6 Gives information, comments, asks questions spontaneously or on request

HSC LS2.2 Expresses agreement or disagreement and expresses pleasure or disappointment

HSC LS2.4 Answers questions and gives explanations

HSC LS2.7 Makes requests for services, information or assistance

HSC LS6.1 Recognises familiar objects and images when presented in a range of formats so as to make choices and communicate needs
Syllabus Content

Early Stage 1 (ENe) Content 


-understand that language can be used to explore ways of expressing needs, likes and dislikes 6B

-recognise that there are different ways of using spoken language to communicate 6B

-compose texts to communicate feelings, needs, opinions and ideas 6B

-recognise different methods of communication 6B



Life Skills (ENLS) Content 


-recognise the role and purpose of non-verbal indicators in communication 2A

-use non-verbal indicators to communicate for a variety of purposes such as to request and reject 2A

-communicate with peers and adults in an appropriate manner 2A

-indicate a preference  2A

HSC Life Skills (LS) Content


-use speech with appropriate vocabulary, volume, tone and manner to indicate approval or disapproval and to accept or reject objects or assistance 1.4

-use speech in conjunction with gestures to indicate approval or disapproval and to accept or reject objects or assistance 1.4

-use a range of communication devices which are understood by others to indicate approval or disapproval and to accept or reject objects or assistance 1.4

-use gestures to indicate approval or disapproval and to accept or reject objects or assistance 1.4

-demonstrate expression of agreement or disagreement 2.2

-respond to questions using ‘yes’, ‘no’, ‘I don’t know’ in a range of situations 2.4

English Learning Continuum Content

Consistently uses appropriate behaviours to accept or reject
Identifies yes/no response and finished

Consistently uses appropriate behaviours to accept or reject

Look for behaviours a student consistently uses to indicate acceptance or rejection of an object or activity. Always respond appropriately by attributing meaning to the behaviours. If the student uses appropriate behaviours, verbally acknowledge the response and act accordingly. For example, if a student smiles in response to being offered a lolly say, “SN you are smiling. You want a lolly” and provide the item. If the student uses inappropriate behaviours, verbally acknowledge the behaviour and shape it into a more appropriate action using the least amount of prompting required. For example, if a student pushes an activity off the table to indicate they do not want to participate in it or they are finished say, “SN, you don’t want .../ SN you are finished…. Next time you need to pack away” Assist the student as necessary to pack away the activity.


Identifies yes/no response and finished

Compile images and videos of different ways to indicate ‘yes’, ‘no’ and ‘finished’. Include the use of speech, natural gesture, Key Word Sign and PCS. Present the images and videos to students during morning circle and label each one. Once students begin to recognise the different ways to indicate ‘yes’, ‘no’ or ‘finished’, ask students to name the response shown in the image or video.


Present a student with a card that contains two PCS, one depicting 'yes' and one depicting 'no', and explain its meaning. Show the student a non-preferred object and ask, “SN, do you want …?” Encourage the student to point to a symbol on the card to indicate the answer. Respond appropriately and say, “SN said no. I’ll put … away” or “SN said yes. Here is the ….”  If the student indicated 'yes' instead of 'no', model the correct response and say, “SN needs to say no.” Repeat the activity using the least amount of prompting required to ensure the student indicates the correct response. When the activity is complete use exaggerated movements/speech and say, “SN, … is finished”. Place the object into a ‘finished’ box which is labelled with checkerboard paper or other relevant ‘finished’ PCS. Use the sequence with both preferred and non-preferred items.


At the end of any activity where there are resources that need to be packed away, present a student with a ‘finished’ box (labelled as above). With exaggerated speech and gesture/PCS to support say, “Finished......! Put it in the ‘finished’ box”. Use the least amount of prompting required to assist the student to pack the items away.



Key Assessment Points


  • The level of prompting required for the student to complete a task should always be recorded.
  • Observation could occur throughout the school day in a variety of activities when assessing these skills.
  • Skill checklists/rubrics could be used to assess some of these skills.
  • Informal testing could be used to assess student skills in this area.




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