Every Student

C3 - Interacting - Concrete Symbolic

Teaching Strategies

Attribute meaning »
Prompting »
Shaping »


Teaching Opportunities

Community access
Classroom visits


Teaching Resources

Interactive books
Choose-it! software
Interactive whiteboard


Levels Of Support

Full Physical Assistance (FP) »
Partial Physical Assistance (PP) »
Modelled Response (M) »
Gesture/Sign (G/S) »
Verbal (V) »
Independent (I) »


Programming Proforma

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Assessment Strategies



Assessment Record

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Syllabus Outcomes and Content
Syllabus Outcomes

Early Stage 1 Outcomes (2012)

ENe-1A A student communicates with peers and known adults in informal and guided activities demonstrating emerging skills of group interaction

ENe-4A A student demonstrates developing skills and strategies to read, view and comprehend short, predictable texts on familiar topics in different media and technologies

ENe-6B A student recognises that there are different kinds of spoken texts with specific language features and shows an emerging

ENe-7B A student recognises some different purposes for writing and that own texts differ in various ways

ENe-8B A student demonstrates emerging skills and knowledge of texts to read and view, and shows developing awareness of purpose, audience and subject matter

ENe-12E A student demonstrates awareness of how to reflect on aspects of their own and others’ learning

Life Skills 7-10 Outcomes (2012)

ENLS-1A A student listens and responds in familiar contexts

ENLS-2A A student communicates for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

ENLS-4A A student views and responds to a range of visual texts, media and multimedia

ENLS-5A A student recognises and uses visual texts, media and multimedia for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

ENLS-6A A student reads and responds to a range of written texts in familiar contexts

ENLS-16D A student explores the ways cultural ideas and perspectives shape a range of spoken, written, visual and multimedia texts

ENLS-17E A student uses individual and collaborative skills in the learning process

HSC Life Skills 11-12 Outcomes (2007)

HSC LS1.2 Responds appropriately to cues in a range of environments

HSC LS1.7 Engages in (responds to and initiates) social routines and actions

HSC LS1.9 Initiates and sustains communication with others

HSC LS2.1 Greets and farewells known and unknown people in an appropriate manner

HSC LS2.8 Recounts stories, personal experiences and jokes

Syllabus Content

Early Stage 1 (ENe) Content 


-use interaction skills including listening while others speak, using appropriate voice levels,
articulation and body language, gestures and eye contact 1A

-communicate with peers and familiar adults about personal experience 1A

-identify some familiar written symbols in context 4A

-greet people differently according to the relationship 6B

-recognise different methods of communication 6B

-demonstrate an awareness of written forms of communication, including labels, symbols, emails, letters and photographs 7B

-interpret pictures with labels, environmental print logos and other visual images 8B





Life Skills (ENLS) Content 


-respond to auditory cues through body language 1A

-respond to familiar auditory cues and signals 1A

-use recognised conventions when communicating in a range of contexts 2A

-greet and farewell people in an appropriate manner in a variety of contexts 2A

-communicate with peers and adults in an appropriate manner 2A

-use appropriate interaction skills across a range of contexts 2A

-communicate personal needs 2A

-recognise symbols, signs and logos in everyday situations 4A

-recognise signs and symbols with universal meaning 5A

-use photographs, pictures, symbols and visual aids for a variety of purposes 5A

-identify culturally specific body language and how this is used to create meaning in a range of texts 16D

HSC Life Skills (LS) Content 


-respond to gestures, signs or voices indicating ‘yes’, ‘no’ and ‘stop’ 1.2

-respond to gestures, signs or voices indicating instructions or requests 1.2

-engage in simple conversations with known peers, using vocalisation, gestures, signs, communication devices or speech in an appropriate manner 1.7

-engage in brief formal conversations with unknown people in both known and unknown situations, using gestures, signs, communication devices or speech 1.7

-initiate social interactions with known and unknown people in appropriate ways 1.7

-initiate and sustain communication with others in appropriate contexts 1.9

-use appropriate language (vocabulary, tone, volume, manner) to greet and farewell 2.1



English Learning Continuum Content

Makes conventional gestures

Uses facial expression or body position in an attempt to engage a communication partner
Recognises photos, symbols and signs in the here and now

Makes intentional greeting to a familiar person
Makes intentional vocalisation to greet  

Attempts to use body language and gestures to interact with others

When the student approaches an adult tugging at their pants, attribute meaning to the action by signing and saying, ‘toilet’. Where possible, use hand over hand support, orthe appropriate level of prompting, to help the student sign ‘toilet’ and immediately take the student to the toilet. After using the toilet, praise the student by saying, “Good SN, you asked to go to the toilet.” Again, use the appropriate level of support to help the student sign ‘toilet’. Fade the level of support required to shape the student’s actions into a more conventional sign for ‘toilet’.


Uses facial expression or body position in an attempt to engage a communication partner

When the student makes unconventional actions, including screwing up their face, lifting their arms, kicking their legs or hitting, attribute a positive meaning to the action. This includes interpreting the action as a greeting. Begin to shape an arm or hand movement into a conventional gesture such as a handshake or high-five or attribute meaning to a facial expression as a ‘hello’.


Recognises photos, symbols and signs in the here and now

Create an activity on a cause and effect software application such as ‘Choose It Maker 2!’


Read a story, such as ‘The Very Hungry Caterpillar’ By Eric Carle with a touch screen device version open on the interactive whiteboard. Open the book and point to a picture. Call the student to the board to touch the corresponding picture which will result in an audio/ visual response such as an animated caterpillar saying “Mmmm, yummy”.


Makes intentional greeting to a familiar person

Model a greeting with a support person during morning circle by saying “Good morning, (support person’s name).” and make a conventional greeting gesture such as waving, handshake or high-five. Then greet the student in the same way and wait for them to respond. If the student makes no response, the support person provides hand over hand support for the student to make the simplest conventional greeting gesture possible for that student


Makes intentional vocalisation to greet

Provide opportunities for familiar people to greet the student throughout the day including classroom visits. When a familiar person enters the classroom say, “Look, SN, (familiar person’s name) is here. Let’s say hello to them.” and strategically pause. Wait for any vocal response from the student and immediately attribute meaning to it by saying, “(familiar person’s name), SN is saying hello to you.” 



Key Assessment Points



  • The level of prompting required for the student to complete a task should always be recorded.
  • Observation could occur throughout the school day in a variety of activities or during a structured assessment task. This could be captured on video or in photos and recorded in skill checklists/rubrics for analysis.
  • Consultation with outside agencies and therapists such as speech therapists may be able to provide additional assessment information.



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