Every Student

C1 - Providing Information - Intentional

Teaching Strategies

Touch cues »
Sensory stimulation »
Attribute meaning »
Motivators »
Modelling »
Incidental teaching »
Strategic pausing »
Prompting »
Shaping »
Blocking access »
Explicit teaching »


Teaching Opportunities

Morning circle
PDHPE sessions
School arrival/departure
Daily routines
Structured play
Afternoon circle
Leisure time
Sensory play
Work tasks
Meal times
Cooking sessions


Teaching Resources

Cueing songs
Social stories
Waiting song
Interactive whiteboard files
Communication books
Light scene projector
Bubble tube
Favoured items
Therapy equipment
Sensory items


Levels Of Support

Full Physical Assistance (FP) »
Partial Physical Assistance (PP) »
Modelled Response (M) »
Gesture/Sign (G/S) »
Verbal (V) »
Independent (I) »


Programming Proforma

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Assessment Strategies



Assessment Record

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Syllabus Outcomes and Content
Syllabus Outcomes

Early Stage 1 Outcomes (2012)

ENe-1A A student communicates with peers and known adults in informal and guided activities demonstrating emerging skills of group interaction

ENe-6B A student recognises that there are different kinds of spoken texts with specific language features and shows an emerging awareness of some purposes for spoken language 


Life Skills 7-10 Outcomes (2012)

ENLS-2A A student communicates for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

ENLS-3A A student selects and uses language to communicate according to purpose, audience and context

ENLS-4A A student views and responds to a range of visual texts, media and multimedia

ENLS-5A A student recognises and uses visual texts, media and multimedia for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

ENLS-6A A student reads and responds to a range of written texts in familiar contexts

ENLS-11B A student composes, publishes and presents texts appropriate to purpose and audience in a range of contexts

HSC Life Skills 11-12 Outcomes (2007)

HSC LS1.1 Gives attention to another person, an object or an event in their environment.

HSC LS1.6 Gives information, comments, asks questions spontaneously or on request

HSC LS1.8 Utilises appropriate technology, and a range of age-appropriate aids, to facilitate communication with others

HSC LS1.9 Initiates and sustains communication with others

HSC LS2.5 Conveys and relays messages

HSC LS2.9 Speaks with others in a range of formal and informal situations

HSC LS6.1 Recognises familiar objects and images when presented in a range of formats so as to make choices and communicate needs
Syllabus Content

Early Stage 1 (ENe) Content 


-describe an object of interest to the class, e.g. toy, pet 1A

-communicate with peers and familiar adults about personal experience 1A

-respond to simple questions either verbally or non-verbally 1A

-demonstrate a developing understanding of language used at school and expectations for using spoken language according to audience and purpose 6B




Life Skills (ENLS) Content 


-contribute to and provide an opinion on familiar topics represented in texts through class and small-group discussions 6A

-plan, rehearse and deliver presentations using language forms, features and structures appropriate to purpose, audience and context 11B

-indicate a preference 2A

-use photographs, pictures, symbols and visual aids for a variety of purposes 4A

-adjust communication to suit purpose and audience 3A


HSC Life Skills (LS) Content 


-stand or give attention to another person, an object or an event in their environment 1.1

-convey information through vocalisation, gesture, sign, communication device or speech in response to initiation from others 1.6

-uses communication technology or aids with peer or adult assistance to communicate basic needs and wants, to convey information and indicate preferences in a range of situations 1.8

-initiate and sustain communication with others in appropriate contexts 1.9

-convey a verbal message directly from one person to another (involving known and unknown people) in a range of situations using a single sentence 2.5

-speak with several known people in an appropriate manner (volume, tone, vocabulary) in a range of small group situations 2.9


English Learning Continuum Content

Fixes gaze Maintains attention Maintains eye contact with person or object
Interacts with a communication partner Waits  

Fixes gaze

Hold a motivating object, such as a light wand, in a student’s line of sight. Encourage them to look in the direction of the object and block physical access to it until the student looks toward it. As soon as the student looks at the object allow them to hold, use or interact with it. Pair this with praise by saying, “SN, good looking! SN is looking at the ….” Repeat this activity a number of times each day varying the motivating object throughout the day and/or week in order to maintain interest.


Light wand 

 Sipping duck

Newton's cradle


 Marble run 

 Tickle Me Elmo

Light-up Kinetic Wheel


Push-top spinner


Pin wheel



Maintains attention

Invite a student to come to the front of the group to assist with handing out awards or other student items such as communication books. Support the student to take the item and give it to the correct person. Encourage the student to remain in front of the group and maintain attention on the task using the least amount of support required.


Maintains eye contact with person or object

Encourage students to maintain eye contact with a person or object during daily routines. For example, when repositioning a student from their wheelchair to the waterbed, make eye contact with the student and tell them what is going to happen. Explain what is going on as it happens and say, “SN we are going to hoist you out of your chair and onto the waterbed. Here we go. You are going up in the hoist. It’s great to see you watching what’s happening.” Incorporate the use of established touch cues to communicate routines with students. This could include a double tap on the shoulder to indicate that it is time for the waterbed.


Toys that capture a student’s attention can encourage them to maintain eyecontact for a short period of time. A Jack–in-the-Box may motivate the student to maintain eye contact with it in anticipation of the resulting action. It is important to have demonstrated how a Jack-in-the-Box works whilst holding it in their line of sight. This should occur numerous times prior to any expectation of the student maintaining eye contact. Some other toys or objects which may motivate students to maintain eye contact include bubble tubes and light scene projectors.


Interacts with a communication partner

Upon arrival at school or during morning circle take opportunities to encourage students to interact with a communication partner by responding to a greeting. When a student makes eye contact immediately greet the student verbally, shake their hand and say, “Hello SN. It is good to see you at school today!” This opportunity could also be used to teach other ways of greeting someone such as a high-five, wave or hug.




Identify opportunities throughout the day to explicitly teach a student to wait. Waiting should be a natural element of the activitysuch as heating food in the microwave. Encourage the student to place the food in the microwave, shut the door, set the timer and start it. Draw their attention to the timer and encourage them to watch the numbers count down. Show the student a ‘wait’ PCS and use gesture to support the student’s understanding of the concept. Block access to the microwave until the heating process is complete. When the microwave beeps, praise the student for waiting and say, “SN great waiting. Now you can eat your …”


Set up an IWB page about waiting for a turn that incorporates student photos, an arrow and a waiting song. Use the page as a tool to explicitly teach the skill of waiting. Point the arrow toward one student at a time to indicate their turn to come to the board and press the button that will play the waiting song. Various forms of prompting could be used to encourage interaction throughout this lesson. Use blocking as needed to encourage students to wait for their turn. 



Key Assessment Points



  • The level of prompting required for the student to complete a task should always be recorded.
  • Observation could occur throughout the school day in a variety of activities or during a structured assessment task. This could be captured on video or in photos and recorded in skill checklists/rubrics for analysis.
  • Consultation with outside agencies and therapists such as speech therapists may be able to provide additional assessment information. 




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