Every Student

C1 - Providing Information - Concrete Symbolic

Teaching Strategies

Touch cues »
Role play »
Questioning »
Provide opportunities for choice »
Modelling »
Strategic pausing »
Prompting »
Shaping »
Blocking access »
Explicit teaching »


Teaching Opportunities

Morning circle
Structured play
Home time
Toy play
Leisure time
Sensory play
Group games
Outdoor play


Teaching Resources

Student photos
Student names
Car mat
First....then board
School bag
Turn taking board


Levels Of Support

Full Physical Assistance (FP) »
Partial Physical Assistance (PP) »
Modelled Response (M) »
Gesture/Sign (G/S) »
Verbal (V) »
Independent (I) »


Programming Proforma

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Assessment Strategies



Assessment Record

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Syllabus Outcomes and Content
Syllabus Outcomes

Early Stage 1 Outcomes (2012)

ENe-1A A student communicates with peers and known adults in informal and guided activities demonstrating emerging skills of group interaction

ENe-6B A student recognises that there are different kinds of spoken texts with specific language features and shows an emerging awareness of some purposes for spoken language 


Life Skills 7-10 Outcomes (2012)

ENLS-2A A student communicates for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

ENLS-3A A student selects and uses language to communicate according to purpose, audience and context

ENLS-4A A student views and responds to a range of visual texts, media and multimedia

ENLS-5A A student recognises and uses visual texts, media and multimedia for a variety of purposes, audiences and contexts

ENLS-6A A student reads and responds to a range of written texts in familiar contexts

ENLS-11B A student composes, publishes and presents texts appropriate to purpose and audience in a range of contexts

HSC Life Skills 11-12 Outcomes (2007)

HSC LS1.1 Gives attention to another person, an object or an event in their environment.

HSC LS1.6 Gives information, comments, asks questions spontaneously or on request

HSC LS1.8 Utilises appropriate technology, and a range of age-appropriate aids, to facilitate communication with others

HSC LS1.9 Initiates and sustains communication with others

HSC LS2.5 Conveys and relays messages

HSC LS2.9 Speaks with others in a range of formal and informal situations

HSC LS6.1 Recognises familiar objects and images when presented in a range of formats so as to make choices and communicate needs
Syllabus Content

Early Stage 1 (ENe) Content 


-describe an object of interest to the class, e.g. toy, pet 1A

-communicate with peers and familiar adults about personal experience 1A

-respond to simple questions either verbally or non-verbally 1A

-demonstrate a developing understanding of language used at school and expectations for using spoken language according to audience and purpose 6B




Life Skills (ENLS) Content 


-contribute to and provide an opinion on familiar topics represented in texts through class and small-group discussions 6A

-plan, rehearse and deliver presentations using language forms, features and structures appropriate to purpose, audience and context 11B

-indicate a preference 2A

-use photographs, pictures, symbols and visual aids for a variety of purposes 4A

-adjust communication to suit purpose and audience 3A


HSC Life Skills (LS) Content 


-stand or give attention to another person, an object or an event in their environment 1.1

-convey information through vocalisation, gesture, sign, communication device or speech in response to initiation from others 1.6

-uses communication technology or aids with peer or adult assistance to communicate basic needs and wants, to convey information and indicate preferences in a range of situations 1.8

-initiate and sustain communication with others in appropriate contexts 1.9

-convey a verbal message directly from one person to another (involving known and unknown people) in a range of situations using a single sentence 2.5

-speak with several known people in an appropriate manner (volume, tone, vocabulary) in a range of small group situations 2.9


English Learning Continuum Content

Maintains eye contact with person or object with purpose
Shares with adult Participates in group activities
Begins to take turns with support    

Maintains eye contact with person or object with purpose

Use home time to encourage a student to maintain eye contact with their bag. Walk to the bag area and point to the student’s bag saying, “SN, it’s time to go home. What do you need to take home?” If the student looks toward and maintains eye contact with the bag, respond immediately by saying, “Yes! You need to take your bag home!” If the student does not maintain eye contact with the bag, pick it up and place it in the student’s line of sight repeating the question and responding in the same way as above. Repeat this each day to shape ‘looking’ behaviour into a purposeful action. Fade the level of prompting as required until the student is able to independently maintain eye contact with their bag to indicate they need it to go home.


Encourage the student to maintain eye contact with a person using a motivating object. Sit opposite the student, directly in their line of sight. Draw the student’s attention to the motivating object. Use a 'Now…then' visual support that shows, now make eye contact with the teacher then play with the motivating object. Show the visual support to the student and read it aloud. Use a light touch cue on the student’s face near their eye followed by the same touch on your face whilst saying, “SN, looking.” Repeat the touch and verbal cue as needed until the student makes eye contact with you. Immediately reward the student when eye contact is made and say, “SN, Good looking!” then give them the motivating object for a limited period of time. Repeat the activity on a regular basis, increasing the time that person to person eye contact must be maintained. Assist the student to generalise this skill by recognising and immediately praising them for all attempts at making eye contact with a person throughout the day.


Shares with adult

Model ‘sharing’ behaviour by driving your own toy car on the same car mat as the student. Say to the student, “SN is sharing the car mat! Good sharing!” Increase the amount of time spent engaged with the student in the shared activity. Vary the activity as required, ensuring that it is motivating for the student. Some ideas for sharing time activities include block play, computer time and toy play.


Begins to take turns with support

Use a ‘Whose turn?’ board and a box of students’ preferred items to explicitly teach turn taking behaviour. This activity is best taught in a small group situation. Show the students the ‘Whose turn?’ board and explain how it works. Model the use of the board by including your own photo/name in the 1st position and taking the first turn to select and play with an item from the box. Indicate it is your turn by placing the ‘now’ symbol over your photo/name and when your turn is finished, place your photo/name onto the ‘finished’ section of the board and move the ‘now’ symbol to the next person. Emphasise key phrases such as ‘my turn’, ‘SN’s turn’, ‘my turn is finished’, ‘you are waiting, it is SN’s turn’, ‘who is next?’, ‘SN’s turn is finished’. Repeat this process until all students have had a turn. Praise students for taking turns and waiting appropriately. Block access to the toys as needed to encourage students to wait for their turn. Use visual supports to assist students to generalise turn taking in a variety of activities such as trampoline, bike riding or computer time.


Lead turn taking activities such as ‘Pass the Parcel’. Explicitly teach the students the rules of the game. Encourage the students to take the parcel and pass it to the next person in the circle. Use repetitive language to reinforce awareness of the movement and direction of the parcel as each student takes their turn to pass it, for example, “It’s SN’s turn now, pass it to SN.” Wait for the music to stop to determine whose turn it is to unwrap a layer of the parcel. Ensure each student has a turn to unwrap the parcel and reinforce whose turn it is by saying, “The music has stopped. SN is holding the parcel. It is SN’s turn.”



Key Assessment Points



  • The level of prompting required for the student to complete a task should always be recorded.
  • Observation could occur throughout the school day in a variety of activities or during a structured assessment task. This could be captured on video or in photos and recorded in skill checklists/rubrics for analysis.


Suggested Apps


Your turn - Kid Timer